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PSYART  March 2000, Week 1

PSYART March 2000, Week 1

Subject:

Norman Holland not caused to see a triangle!

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 3 Mar 2000 16:51:09 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (139 lines)

From:
        Raymond Barglow <[log in to unmask]>

Thu 11:05 AM


Recent Holland riposte on PsyArt list:
“You have come round again to the familiar but erroneous view that words
do things to people.”

What things do words do?  Please join me on the following excursion,
which will convey us to the magic answer!

What do you see below?

               *
             *   *
          *   *   *
        *   *   *   *
      *   *   *   *   *

I see a triangle composed of asterisks.

A triangle is not the only thing that I see.  I also see an Xmas tree of
my childhood   I am Jewish, but we had an Xmas tree anyway.  I remember
that ... well, no, let’s not go there.  Further reminiscence evokes
myriad feelings that I am not going to sort out now (if ever).

The point is this: the above structure of asterisks causes me to see a
triangle.  Yes, dear friends, this structure _does_ something, it
_causes_ a perception in me. But I am afraid it doesn’t have the same
effect on Norm.  Gulp!  Norm, what do you see?  Oh, you say that you see
a triangle too.  But that you aren’t _caused_ by the structure of
asterisks to see it. Rather, you _interpret_ the pattern before you as a
triangle.

Hmmm ... you must be assuming that because you bring your own
capacities/propensities to bear on the pattern of asterisks, because you
are “receptive” in a certain way, it cannot be the case that the
structure does something to you, that it causes you to see a triangle.

Well, you can insist in speaking this way, but then you are changing the
way we ordinarily use causal locutions, and I find that confusing.

E.g. “The wind caused the bridge to collapse.”  Of course, the wind was
not by itself a sufficient condition for the collapse.  The bridge had
to be, as Norm would remind us, “receptive” to collapsing – thanks to
engineering flaws, old age, or some other unhappiness.  Nevertheless,
the wind did something – it caused the bridge to collapse.

Similarly, we can be caused to perceive/believe/do things by language.
True, human receptivity to words is radically different from that of a
bridge to the wind.  But in each case, causal relationships feel quite
at home. In my posting last week I used the example of a phrase like
“Bush is the real reformer” or “McCain is the real reformer.”  Such a
phrase can cause an action.  Not by itself, of course!  Typically, when
A causes B, it needs some help from other factors to do so.  The house
does not fall down only because piglet huffs and puffs. The house has to
be responsive to the blowing.  Stone is typically less responsive than
straw.  Please remember: “A causes B” does not mean “A _alone_ causes
B.”

In Turkey, an earthquake caused many buildings to collapse. But most of
them would still be standing if they had been better built.  Let’s
develop a theory around this idea and call it “building-response
theory.”  Our insight: only if a building is appropriately “responsive”
does it tumble when the earth shudders.  Are we now forbidden to say “An
earthquake caused many buildings to collapse in Turkey last year”?  I
think not.

Similarly, words cause us to do things, and they do so via a crucial
mediation: the interpretations that we give to them.  Returning to the
political example above – the TV set announces: “Bush is the _real
reformer_.”  But suppose I was scarcely paying attention.  If someone
asks me “Dear, what were you hearing just now on the telly?” I might say
“Well I don’t rightly know – I wasn’t really listening, love.”  This
very reply might be partly shaped by the ad I didn’t realize I heard!
Had the word “real” not been spoken on the tube, perhaps I would have
used the word “actually” instead of “really” in what I said.  That might
be only the most immediate and superficial effect of my “absorption” of
the ad phrase.  (By speaking of “absorption” here, I don’t mean an
entirely passive process, devoid of interpretation.  To insist “Ah yes,
but you are interpreting what you hear!” would be to miss the point.)

Let’s suppose that I _was_ paying attention to the Bush ad, and it
“reached” me.  A week later, when I walk into the voting booth and
peruse the list of candidates, my eye sticks on the name of one of the
candidates, as the phrase passes through my mind “He’s the real
reformer.”  Or the original phrase might assume a modified form, such as
“I don’t like the system as it is – maybe this candidate will go in
there and really change things.”  Without further reflection, I depress
the lever next to that man’s name.

Words can indeed cause actions – can even help a candidate win an
election.  After all, those tens of millions aren’t flowing out of
Bush/McCain/Gore/Bradley’s coffers to fund commercials for nothing.
(Attributing such causal efficacy to words obviously does not imply that
they act in a vacuum – like any other kind of cause, they produce their
effects only within a context that enables them to do so.)

I’ve treated the above example only superficially.  A deeper analysis of
a catch phrase like “real reformer” would look at the ideologically
tailored meanings of its constituent words.  Explanation of a
psychological kind can help us understand some of the highways and
byways of the linguistic structures of our daily lives, including the
ways in which our longings get denatured and harnessed to the ends of
merchandising and social compliance. Take the word “real” for example –
among my own associations are “the real taste of Pepsi” and “a real
job.”  Fortunately, “real” has other meanings for me as well.  Words are
bearers of metaphysical assumptions.  Lacanian psychoanalysis can make a
contribution here.  Some of the effects of political and other
discourses, wherein language indeed “does things,” are examined in Mark
Bracher’s book “Lacan, Discourse, and Social Change: A Psychoanalytic
Cultural Criticism.”

Examination of the interweaving of determination and choice is what the
Lacanian project, at its best, is about.  There is a dialectic between
human subjects and the “Other,” consisting of the network of meanings
and meaning-givers that shapes us even at the moment that we call it
into question.  Thanks in large part to what these meanings – embedded
in our families, traditions, friendships, language games – have taught
us, we are enabled to challenge what is.

In viewing language in this way, we aren’t saying anything as bizarre as
“Words affect us independently of the interpretations we give to them.”
Nor are we elevating ourselves to some superior place, heavens above the
duped masses.  I regard myself as one more molecule darting here and
there within their ranks, often stupider than my neighbor.  I am happy
when the molecules talk with one another and act intelligently in
concert (as in the protest against WTO policies and propaganda up in
Seattle late last year). Our perceptions and to some extent our
interpretations, are caused by the world around us.  But we can remake
the causes.

Well, our excursion is over.  Did the words along the way do anything to
you?  Hope at least you enjoyed the ride.

raymond barglow
berkeley, ca

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January 2002, Week 1
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March 2001, Week 3
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December 1998, Week 5
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December 1997, Week 5
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