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PSYART  March 2000, Week 1

PSYART March 2000, Week 1

Subject:

advantages of neuroscience for psychoanalytic discourse

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 6 Mar 2000 11:58:25 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (205 lines)

From:
        Dianne Hunter <[log in to unmask]>

Sun 6:40 AM


Thank you, Norman Holland, for your report on Schore's work on
psychoanalysis and neuroscience.  I have two questions:

1. It is not clear to me what is gained by saying "the self-organization of the
developing brain occurs in the context of a relationship
with another self, another brain" (Schore), rather than, for instance, "out
of the potential identities each newborn infant brings into the world, a
single way of being is activated by the mother's body language, including
holding, nursing, caressing, bathing, dressing and facial mirroring" (my
paraphrase of Lichtenstein plus Winnicott on the "Mirror Role of the
Mother")?

Norm Holland wrote:
... What is the relation between an
identity theme and the brain?  Lichtenstein himself thought an identity theme
was inscribed in the brain by early mother-infant experiences.  The infant
becomes the infant for *this* mother.  He offered ethological studies (Lorenz'
famous greylag goose) as evidence.

Had Bill posed this question two weeks ago I would have answered it
differently.  I would have pointed to my discussion of this question in _The
Brain of Robert Frost_ (1988) and _The Critical I_ (1992, available at my web
site).  I'd like to give my former answer and then amend it by the book I've
just finished reading, my "discovery."  In those earlier writings, I took two
different tacks.

One--call this Lichtenstein Lite--you can posit that one's reading of an
identity theme is not "in" the brain as such but just that, one's reading, an
interpretation.  There is no need to give such a theme existence in any form
save as a way of conceptualizing another human being.  If so, then, we get a
thoroughly relativistic picture (which is ok by me) of my interpreting your
identity through my identity theme; then my interpreting becoming an act which
expresses my identity theme for someone interpreting my identity theme;
someone's interpretation of me becomes an act that expresses that person's
identity theme, and so on.  We can never assume one of these interpretations is
_the_ interpretation.

In fact, this is the way it has to be, isn't it?  The very idea of an identity
theme commits us to relativism.  Even if we found a neural system for the
identity theme, all our perceptions would be colored by it.  I believe in this
axiom: we cannot perceive or know anything apart from some human act of
perception (which necessarily expresses identity).  There is no god's eye view
(as philosopher Hilary Putnam puts it).  If we take the identity theme as
simply
an interpretation, we need not look for it in the brain.

Two--one could posit that there is an identity theme inscribed in one's brain
by, presumably, the interpersonal relations of early infancy.  The evidence I
gave for this view in my 1988 and 1992 books was the now well-established fact
that the human brain is born in a very immature state.  It makes a large number
of synaptic connections during the first year of life.  It makes connections
according to the demands of the environment, and that environment in the early
months of life is the primary caregiver, call her mother.  The infant grows
more
connections until the age of, say, six, more connections than it needs, about
twice as many.  Latency--six to eleven--is the age when you can incorporate
huge
amounts of unrelated factual information, foreign vocabulary and grammar, for
example, or baseball averages.

The infant keeps this supercharged but somewhat chaotic brain until pubescence,
when many of the unused synapses and systems die off to leave the adult (or at
least teen-aged) brain.  Brain development continues, however.  Indeed, the
final myelinization of the prefrontal cortex is not finished until,
roughly, the
age of thirty.  Further, as is also well-established, we have brain plasticity
throughout life (the reason for success with a talking cure), although not,
presumably, as much as in childhood.

It seems reasonable to assume that an identity theme is established in the
early
growing and ungrowing of the brain.  People who observe children note that one
can begin to formulate personalities for children about the age of three
(Mahler).  Possibly the identity theme is present fractally throughout the
brain, as Bill suggests, as it manifests itself in the behaviors of different
neural systems.

Until this week, this is all I could have said. But I've been preparing this
week for a talk that I'm giving next Friday at which I shall lose my
neuroscientific virginity. . . .

Preparing for this momentous occasion, I forced myself (after keeping this
heavy
book around for almost a year) to read what turns out to be probably the most
important text I have read this decade.  It is by Allan N. Schore, entitled
_Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self: The Neurobiology of Emotional
Development_ (Erlbaum, 1994; available in paperback from Amazon).

Schore is a psychoanalyst/psychiatrist at UCLA.  He set himself the task of
reading an immense amount of the psychoanalytic and neuroscientific literature
to try for a rapprochement between the two.  He cites some 2300 references!
I'd
summarize his conclusions this way.

Schore's basic idea is that the emotional interactions, body contact and in
particular facial expressions in the first months of life provide the infant
with emotional regulation.  At first the mother serves as an external
regulator,
meeting the infant's needs so as to minimize negative affect and produce
positive affect.  Then the infant internalizes this regulation.  Patterns get
laid down in paths from the orbitofrontal cortex to the lateral limbic system,
particularly in the right hemisphere, and to the ventral tegmental area,
activated by the mesocortical dopamine system.

There are two stages.  The first takes place about the end of the first year of
life, and it leads to internalizing a regulation of the sympathetic nervous
system, the expression of positive affects such as joy or contentment.  This
regulation derives from experiences of separation followed by reunion with the
mother.  Schore situates it in the "practicing" phase as described by Mahler.

The second comes about near the end of the second year of life and derives from
experiences of shame as the mother tries to regulate the motor behavior of the
now-active infant.  This internalized regulation follows the same pathway
as the
earlier one but is geared to regulation of the parasympathetic nervous system,
i.e., the physical attributes of emotions like sadness and depression.

It seems to me that, all told, Schore provides at least a partial
neurobiological basis for a number of psychoanalytic concepts:

oral, anal, phallic (but understood as the sensorimotor systems involved).
affect
defense mechanisms (establishment of)
gender identity (steroid influences on the pathway formations)
identity (emotional regulation affecting all behaviors)
aetiology of bipolar, narcissistic, and borderline disorders
aetiology of depression
shame
ego ideal
superego
non-verbal aspects of transference

He also extends his ideas to questions of psychoanalytic efficacy.

As for identity and its expression in reading literature, it seems to me that
emotion monitors the feedback processes I've described in my previous post.
Positive feedback, understood as pleasurable emotion, means no need to test
further.  Negative feedback, understood as Freud's unpleasure, means you
need to
seek a further solution.  In conventional psychology, we are talking
constructivism or the system of George Kelly.  Emotional regulation will thus
permeate all the transactions a brain initiates.  Possibly one could think of
this emotional regulation as fractally present throughout the brain as Bill
suggests.

At any rate, I think Schore gives us a most important step forward in a
rapprochement between psychoanalysis and neuroscience as well as a way of
understanding our own minds.  He has at least put forward a hypothesis that
ought to be considered in both the psychoanalytic and the neuroscientific
camps.

This is Schore's summary of his own work in a commentary on articles by Solms,
Nersessian, and Panksepp (important players in this game of advancing
neuro-psychoanalytic theories of emotion).  It comes from the new journal
_Neuro-Psychoanalysis_ 1.1 (1999): 51-52.  This is what Schore writes:

>       My own work in this area (Schore, 1994, 1996, 1997b,
> 1998) has focused on the effects of emotional interactions
> in early life on the organization of brain systems that
> process affect; that is, the developmental neurobiology of
> attachment. I have proposed that the vitally important
> attachment experiences of infancy are stored in the early
> maturing right hemisphere, and that for the rest of the
> lifespan unconscious working models of the attachment
> relationship encode strategies of affect regulation for
> coping with stress, especially interpersonal stress. These
> internal representations are accessed as guides for future
> interactions, and the term working refers to the individual's
> unconscious use of them to interpret and act on new
> experiences.
>       A major focus of current developmental
> interdisciplinary studies has been on the reciprocal
> affective transactions within the mother-infant dyadic
> system. In these face-to-face emotional communications
> the mother is essentially regulating the infant's
> psychobiological states. The attachment relationship is
> thus a regulator of arousal, and attachment is, in essence,
> the dyadic regulation of emotion (Sroufe, 1996). But even
> more, these interactive affect regulating events act as a
> mechanism for the "social construction of the human brain"
> (Eisenberg, 1995). Trevarthen (1993) concludes that "the
> affective regulations of brain growth" are embedded in the
> context of an intimate relationship, and that they promote
> the development of cerebral circuits. This interactive
> mechanism requires older brains to engage with mental
> states of awareness, emotion, and interest in younger
> brains, and involves a coordination between the
> motivations of the infant and the subjective feelings of
> adults. In this manner, "the self-organization of the
> developing brain occurs in the context of a relationship
> with another self, another brain" (Schore, 1996, p. 60).
...

2. Doesn't this tell us something we already know--that people develop by
collaborating with other people?

Those steroidal influences cited above that correspond to gender
development, for example, aren't they biological expressions of the
developing child's interactions with other people?

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February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
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April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 3
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April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
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March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
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February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
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August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 4

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