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PSYART  February 2001, Week 3

PSYART February 2001, Week 3

Subject:

Characters versus People

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 17 Feb 2001 14:23:48 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (163 lines)

From:
        Ellen Moody <[log in to unmask]>

6:09 AM
One of the chapters in my book on Anthony
Trollope (it's called _Trollope on the Net_ because
it's partly about the experiences I had reading
books with others on literary lists), is on
his _An Autobiography_.  In it I tried to distinguish
between a character in a novel and a character
in an autobiography.  This is of interest in thinking
about how far we really do approach characters as
if they are real people.  I suggest we do approach
a character in an _Autobiography_ whom we know
has a real life outside the book differently from a
character in a fiction whom we know doesn't.
Similarly the author of a book really about him
or herself which includes people who have lives
outside the book will present them differently
than he would a character he has "made up".

What I wanted to do was argue for a way of
reading an _Autobiography_ and a different
set of criteria for evaluating it which conveys
the experience we get from such a book.
I read a lot about autobiography -- and nowadays
there are some excellent studies of life
writings as a genre.  Anyway I found a
fascinating, entertaining & helpful book by Umberto
Eco called _Six Walks in Fictional Woods_.
Among other things he brings up is the
problem of how far we can fill details into
a character's life which the author did not give
us (which readers like to do -- and leads to
the writing of sequels).  He looks at what kinds
of questions we can ask or objections and
judgements we can make.  I talked about some
of his comments in the chapter in my book
on Trollope's _Autobiography_.

To use some examples from Trollope characters
who may be familiar to people on this list.  I will
hope many have read _The Warden>  So,  for example,
what is the difference between the character
called Trollope in the _Autobiography_ and
the character called Mr Harding in _The
Warden_.  Literally none at all.  However, we
as readers take a different attitude towards
them because we know Mr Trollope as a
character refers to a real man who once lived,
and who is writing his book, so if he doesn't
tell us things we think we've a right to know,
we can complain.  We can't complain at
Mr Harding for not telling us things.  We
also know of real people they keep secrets
from us.  Mr Harding is not going off doing
things he's not telling us.  All we can
ever know or deduce about Mr Harding
we have to get from the book: we may
deduce a lot, but it has to come from the
book.  Not so Mr Trollope or a real person.

In his book Mr Trollope tells us about a woman
he says he loves, but he does not tell her name
or anything about this love.  He suggests this
might hurt her.  He left the autobiography in
his desk and his son published after he died.
There was some question about whether to
expunge the passage; in the end the son
censored it a bit.  Recently the passage has
appeared uncensored.  Well, Trollope didn't
want to hurt Kate Fields (that was her name),
nor his wife nor his sons.  Had he named her
he might have.  She lives outside the book.
He can tell us all he wants about heroines
and heroes with adulterous longings or
who cheat, lie, and do many "bad" things
in his books without worrying if anyone real
will get hurt directly from it.

Eco has a chapter where he brings forward
incidents novelists like to play with where
they make fun of some of these faultlines.
For example, (to take another example I
know well and hope others will) in _Emma_,
Emma Woodhouse paints a picture of
Harriet sitting outdoors.  Her father comes
along and says he doesn't like the picture.
It distresses him.  Why?  Because
she hasn't painted a shawl on Harriet and
Harriet will catch cold.  Emma does not
say to him, "papa, this is not an appropriate
statement to make about my picture"; instead
she reassures him by saying, but "Papa,
don't you see, it's summer in the picture.
Harriet doesn't need her shawl."  Austen has
her continue her father's absurdity -- for the reader's
delectation.  The fun is in seeing the distance
and inappropriateness of the response.

One more: in _Northanger Abbey_, the heroine's
rather dull chapterone Mrs Allen says when she
reads gothic novels, they puzzle her and she
worries about the characters.  Why?  The description
of the ruined broken down kitchens in the vast castles
suggest to her the great difficulties the servants
must have getting through all the work with such
inadequate facilities.  Of course she is identifying
in too pragmatic a way.   This is a variant on the
joke in _Emma_.

There are other novelists in the 18th century who like to play
with the reader over the differences between real people
and characters in books.  Laurence Sterne in
_Tristram Shandy_ mocks the artificial use of analogous
"feels" of time against real time.  Modern writers who do
this include Italo Calvino.   Johnson too is using this
business  of a suspension of disbelief when he mocks
the unities and says we always know we are watching
a play -- just like we always know we are sitting in
our chairs reading a book even if we lose an immediate
sense of it while we are "absorbed" into the book and
don't like to be disturbed away.  Anyone who has
been to an English pantomime will have seen the
actors play games with the children in the audience
by taking advantage of their belief in the characters
on the stage as real people.  Yet the children don't
mind.  They enter into the game as intense fun.
Or most of them don't seem to get hurt when the
tendencies of the human imagination are
exploited through their naivete in this fashion.

There are other chapters in Eco's book about how we r
espond to landscapes in books and art and how this differs
from how we respond to when we see them in life.
For after all, we are talking endlessly about mental life.
Proust (I am just now listening to an unabridged
audiocassette recording of _Swann's Way_ read aloud
beautifully by John Rowe -- in my car as I drive about),
Proust says all we ever really respond to is our
perceptions of things.  How do you control that?
You are free to make what choices you like, take what
perspective, play what games you like with your imaginative
in response to someone else's.

Yet there is a difference between a character in a
fiction and a character in a life writing.  It's dangerous
to write frankly about characters in life writings
and not in fictions.  You can't ask the same sorts
of questions.  You can't know much about real
people; you can know everything you need to
know and indeed can known about a character
from the book he or she appears in.

Just a few thoughts to see what people say.
I am very interested in the differences and likenesses,
the continuums between the art of autobiography
and life writings (letters, diaries) and the art of
fictions (whether they take the form of plays
or prose or verse narratives and lyrics).

Cheers to all,
Ellen Moody

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December 1998, Week 5
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