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PSYART  September 2001, Week 4

PSYART September 2001, Week 4

Subject:

A psychoanalytic explanation of the terrorists

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 26 Sep 2001 18:31:12 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (63 lines)

Dear PSYARTers,

People have been asking how one can explain the motivations of the terrorists.
Let me offer a rather simple psychoanalytic explanation.

Ordinarily, our superegos prevent us from robbing, raping, murdering, wrecking,
and all the other things our raw impulses toward immediate pleasure might lead
us into doing.  But the terrorist's superego has been, so to speak bought off.
How?

It's not difficult, as you can see from the long history in this country of
lynch mobs, slavery, the KKK, genocide of the native Americans, etc. You
persuade yourself that this act (which would ordinarily run counter to your
superego) is in fact in the service of a just cause (one which your particular
ego tells your superego is morally right.).

That could be white supremacy, avenging the wrong of Waco (like the unrepentant
McVeigh), keeping people of color in their rightful place, Manifest Destiny,
punishing the U.S. for its misdeeds--you name it.  We humans are adept at
finding things that allow us to do what we ordinarily would not permit
ourselves.  Religious reasons, as with bin Laden and the Taliban, do this best.
A religious reason is unarguably RIGHT.

So perhaps it isn't just the intellectual move of justification.  Perhaps that
move gets a little boost from those impulses that would like to be let loose.
My wish to do violence makes it, perhaps, easier for me to accept that it is
right, good Islamic teaching, to punish the U.S., including killing a lot of
people who had nothing to do with the misdeeds of our country.

That second move, from impulse to ego-belief to superego relaxation, seems to me
possible, but the crucial one is the first.  Ego-belief relaxes superego and
allows us to gratify impulses  we would otherwise recoil from.

As you know, I've been much interested in the convergence of psychoanalysis and
neuroscience.  Looking at the phenomenon through both lenses, we could note
that, if there is a superego, it is in the prefrontal cortex (to quote Robert
Sapolsky of Stanford).  That is the last part of the brain to develop, the part
that fully visualizes consequences and, probably, moral strictures (hence the
risky, rebellious, and inconsiderate behavior of adolescents).  The cognitive
element, the ego-belief that one is acting in a just cause, would also be
located, if not in the prefrontal cortex, pretty far forward in the frontal
lobes.  In efect, the two regions are side by side, and it should be very easy
for the one to influence the other.   (Please note that I am winging it here;
I've done no reading or research on this.)

The other path, from id-impulse to ego-belief to relaxation of superego, I'm
afraid I can't tackle. at all.  Unrestrained impulses to rape and murder would
be way down in the lower, i.e. evolutionarily earlier,  regions of our brain.
If we believe Freud, they would be constantly pushing for expression against
restrictions imposed by the later, hominid or perhaps even primate parts of our
brains.  The paths or systems would be exceedingly complicated, too complicated
for me to guess at.  Lots of emotions, like that feeling that this is RIGHT,
would be involved in that route.

OK, for what it's worth, there's my neuro-psychoanalytic explanation.  Go to it,
PSYARTers.  What do you think?

                        --Best, Norm
Norm Holland
[log in to unmask]


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