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PSYART  September 2003, Week 3

PSYART September 2003, Week 3

Subject:

[Fwd: Fwd: NYTimes.com Article: We Got Rhythm; the Mystery Is How and Why]

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sat, 20 Sep 2003 15:46:12 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (299 lines)

-------- Original Message --------
Subject: Fwd: NYTimes.com Article: We Got Rhythm; the Mystery Is How and Why
Date: Fri, 19 Sep 2003 00:10:00 -0500
From: Amy Bauer <[log in to unmask]>
To: [log in to unmask]


(291 lines) ------------------
A student forwarded to me this very interesting NYT article that
links music cognition with some features of speech (among other
things)...

>
>To: [log in to unmask]
>Subject: NYTimes.com Article: We Got Rhythm; the Mystery Is How and Why
>
>
>Explore more of Starbucks at Starbucks.com.
>http://www.starbucks.com/default.asp?ci=1015
>\----------------------------------------------------------/
>
>We Got Rhythm; the Mystery Is How and Why
>
>September 16, 2003
>  By NICHOLAS WADE
>
>
>
>
>
>
>In lovers' songs, military marches, weddings and funerals -
>every occasion where a degree of emotion needs to be evoked
>- music is an indispensable ingredient.
>
>Yet the ability to enjoy music has long puzzled biologists
>because it does nothing evident to help survival. Why,
>therefore, should evolution have built into the human brain
>this soul-stirring source of pleasure? Man's faculties for
>enjoying and producing music, Darwin wrote, "must be ranked
>among the most mysterious with which he is endowed."
>
>Music is still a mystery, a tangle of culture and built-in
>skills that researchers are trying to tease apart. No one
>really knows why music is found in all cultures, why most
>known systems of music are based on the octave, why some
>people have absolute pitch and whether the brain handles
>music with special neural circuits or with ones developed
>for other purposes. Recent research, however, has produced
>a number of theories about the brain and music.
>
>It could be that the brain perceives music with the same
>circuits it uses to hear and analyze human speech, and that
>it thrills to its cadences with centers designed to mediate
>other kinds of pleasure. Dr. Anne Blood and Dr. Robert J.
>Zatorre, of the Montreal Neurological Institute, recently
>took PET scans of musicians' brains while they listened to
>self-selected pieces of music that gave them "chills" of
>euphoria. The works included Rachmaninoff's Piano Concerto
>No. 3 and Barber's Adagio for Strings. The music, the
>researchers reported, activated similar neural systems of
>reward and emotion as those stimulated by food, sex and
>addictive drugs.
>
>If music depends on neural circuits developed for other
>reasons, then it is just a happy accident, regardless of
>evolution, that people enjoy it. This is the position taken
>by Dr. Steven Pinker, a psychologist at Harvard University.
>Music, he writes in his 1997 book "How the Mind Works," is
>"auditory cheesecake" - it just happens to tickle several
>important parts of the brain in a highly pleasurable way,
>as cheesecake tickles the palate. These include the
>language ability (with which music overlaps in several
>ways); the auditory cortex; the system that responds to the
>emotional signals in a human voice crying or cooing; and
>the motor control system that injects rhythm into the
>muscles when walking or dancing.
>
>That music can activate all these powerful systems at once
>is the reason it packs such a mental oomph, in Dr. Pinker's
>analysis. But since each of these systems evolved for
>independent reasons, music itself is no more an
>evolutionary adaptation than is the ability to like
>dessert, which arises from intense stimulation of the taste
>buds responsive to sweet and fatty substances.
>
>But other evolutionary psychologists believe the faculty of
>enjoying music is no accident. Darwin suggested that human
>ancestors, before acquiring the power of speech,
>"endeavored to charm each other with musical notes and
>rhythm." It is because of music's origin in courtship,
>Darwin believed, that it is "firmly associated with some of
>the strongest passions an animal is capable of feeling."
>
>In his theory of sexual selection, Darwin proposed that
>traits found attractive in courtship would enable their
>owners to get more genes into the next generation. The
>upshot would be the emergence of adornments that had no
>immediately obvious survival value in themselves, like the
>peacock's tail or the troubadour's ballads.
>
>Darwin's ideas about music have been extended by Dr.
>Geoffrey Miller, an evolutionary psychologist at the
>University of New Mexico. Dr. Miller notes their potency in
>pointing to the opportunities open to popular musicians for
>transmitting their genes to the next generation. The rock
>guitarist Jimi Hendrix, for instance, had "sexual liaisons
>with hundreds of groupies, maintained parallel long-term
>relationships with at least two women, and fathered at
>least three children in the United States, Germany, and
>Sweden. Under ancestral conditions before birth control, he
>would have fathered many more," Dr. Miller writes.
>
>Why on earth would nubile young women choose a rock star as
>a possible father of their children instead of more
>literary and reflective professionals such as, say,
>journalists? Dr. Miller sees music as an excellent
>indicator of fitness in the Darwinian struggle for
>survival. Since music draws on so many of the brain's
>faculties, it vouches for the health of the organ as a
>whole. And since music in ancient cultures seems often to
>have been linked with dancing, a good fitness indicator for
>the rest of the body, anyone who could sing and dance well
>was advertising the general excellence of their mental and
>physical genes to a potential mate.
>
>"Music evolved and continues to function as a courtship
>display, mostly broadcast by young males to attract
>females," Dr. Miller writes in "The Origins of Music," a
>collection of essays by him and others.
>
>But other psychologists argue that Dr. Miller's courtship
>theory does not do full justice to another important
>dimension of music, its role in cementing social
>relationships and coordinating the activities of large
>groups of people. Dr. Robin Dunbar, of Liverpool
>University, has shown that monkeys spend a large amount of
>time grooming other members of their social group, so much
>so that they would scarcely have time to look for food if
>their 50-strong groups were to grow any larger.
>
>Dr. Dunbar believes that the much larger human groups, of
>150 members or so, overcame the grooming barrier by
>developing a new kind of social glue, namely language.
>Group singing, or chorusing, may have been an intermediate
>step in this process, he suggests. He has preliminary
>evidence that singing in church produces endorphins, a
>class of brain hormone thought to be important in social
>bonding, he said in an e-mail message.
>
>Others, like Dr. Edward Hagen of Humboldt University in
>Berlin and Dr. Gregory A. Bryant of the University of
>California at Santa Cruz, believe the role of music in
>human evolutionary history was not to create social
>cohesion but to signal it to rival groups. By putting on a
>better song-and-dance display, a group could show it had
>the coordination to prevail in a scrap, and could thus
>avoid a fight altogether, they write in an article
>available on the Web.
>
>Male chimpanzees sometimes chorus in a call known as a
>pant-hoot, though usually to attract females to a new
>source of fruit they have found. For human ancestors,
>musical displays of this kind "may have formed the
>evolutionary basis for the musical abilities of modern
>humans," Dr. Hagen and Dr. Bryant write. The Pentagon's
>vigorous support of military bands - $163 million in 1997 -
>lends a certain resonance to this view.
>
>The courting and social cohesion theories of music's
>origins assume that there are structures in the human brain
>that have evolved specifically to handle music. If no such
>structures exist, then Dr. Pinker's theory or something
>like it is correct.
>
>A leading clue that points to music-specific structures,
>yet is so far not conclusive, is that many features of
>music are universal as well as apparently innate, meaning
>present at birth. All societies have music, all sing
>lullaby-like songs to their infants, and most produce tonal
>music, or music composed in subsets of the 12-tone
>chromatic scale, such as the diatonic or pentatonic scales.
>Some of the earliest known musical instruments, crane bone
>flutes from the Jiahu site in China, occupied from 7000 to
>5700 B.C., produce a tonal scale.
>
>Dr. Sandra Trehub, of the University of Toronto, has
>developed methods of testing the musical preferences of
>infants as young as 2 to 6 months. She finds they prefer
>consonant sounds, like perfect fifths or perfect fourths,
>over dissonant ones. A reasonable conclusion is that "the
>rudiments of music listening are gifts of nature rather
>than products of culture," she wrote in the July issue of
>Nature Neuroscience.
>
>But although certain basic features of music, such as the
>octave, intervals with simple ratios like the perfect
>fifth, and tonality, seem to be innate, they are probably
>not genetic adaptations for music, "but rather appear to be
>side effects of general properties of the auditory system,"
>conclude two Cambridge scientists, Josh McDermott of the
>Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Dr. Marc Hauser
>of Harvard, in an unpublished article.
>
>The human auditory system is probably tuned to perceive the
>most important sounds in a person's surroundings, which are
>those of the human voice. Three neuroscientists at Duke
>University, Dr. David A. Schwartz, Dr. Catherine Q. Howe
>and Dr. Dale Purves, say that on the basis of this cue they
>may have solved the longstanding mysteries of the structure
>of the chromatic scale and the reason why some harmonies
>are more pleasing than others.
>
>Though every human voice, and maybe each utterance, is
>different, a certain commonality emerges when many
>different voices are analyzed. The human vocal tract shapes
>the vibrations of the vocal cords into a set of harmonics
>that are more intense at some frequencies than others
>relative to the fundamental note. The principal peaks of
>intensity occur at the fifth and the octave, with lesser
>peaks at other intervals that correspond to most of the 12
>tones of the chromatic scale, the Duke researchers say in
>an article published last month in the Journal of
>Neuroscience. Almost identical spectra were produced by
>speakers of English, Mandarin, Persian and Tamil.
>
>The Duke researchers believe the auditory system judges
>sounds to be pleasant the closer they approximate to this
>generalized power spectrum of the human voice. "A musical
>tone combination whose power is concentrated at the same
>places as a human speech sound will sound more familiar and
>more natural," Dr. Schwartz said.
>
>Some people are unable to appreciate music, raising the
>question of whether some music-specific faculty has been
>damaged. People who are tone deaf also fail to hear pitch
>changes in the human voice, so this deficit does not seem
>specific to music. Some patients have music agnosia, an
>inability to recognize familiar melodies, even ones to
>which they know the lyrics. But the brain has to store
>memories about music somewhere, and the music agnosia
>patients could have incurred memory damage that just
>happened to hit the music archive, Mr. McDermott, of
>M.I.T., said.
>
>"Any innate biases on music must derive from something in
>the brain, but at present there is little evidence for
>neural circuitry dedicated to music," Mr. McDermott and Dr.
>Hauser conclude.
>
>Dr. Zatorre, of the Montreal institute, takes a similar
>view. The brain has evolved faculties for perceiving
>sounds, organizing events in time and maintaining memory
>stores, he said. "Once you've got all that hardware in
>place, it can be used for a lot of different purposes. But
>I don't think it follows that music was selected for."
>
>Whether music is cheesecake, courtship or cohesion, its
>mystery remains unbreached.
>
>http://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/16/science/16MUSI.html?ex=1064923835&ei=1&en=07291772ae624c82
>
>
>---------------------------------
>
>Get Home Delivery of The New York Times Newspaper. Imagine
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>
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>[log in to unmask] or visit our online media
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>
>For general information about NYTimes.com, write to
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>
>Copyright 2003 The New York Times Company


--
Amy Bauer, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Music
Washington University in St. Louis
Campus Box 1032
St. Louis, MO 63130-4899
phone 314-935-5515
fax   314-935-4034
[log in to unmask]
http://artsci.wustl.edu/~abauer/

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July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
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July 1997, Week 3
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June 1997, Week 4

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