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PSYART  February 2004, Week 2

PSYART February 2004, Week 2

Subject:

Lakoff on NPR

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 10 Feb 2004 12:34:08 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (188 lines)

Hi, gang,

I thought you might be interested in George Lakoff's appearance on National
Public Radio yesterday.  George is the principal developer of a theory of how
metaphor works in our minds and bodies.  He applied his ideas in a book called
MORAL POLITICS, analyzing American liberals and conservatives.  His ideas seem
to have found a home in Tony Blair's positioning of "New Labour."  His ideas
givbe with a paper I recently read on how people's ideas on the Clinton-Lewinsky
scandal and the 2000 election dispute came more from their pre-existing
attitudes toward the principals and little from the knowledge they had of the
facts in either case.

                         --Best,

                                     Norm
Norm Holland
[log in to unmask]

Copyright 2004 National Public Radio (R). All rights reserved. No quotes from
the materials contained herein may be used in any media without attribution to
National Public Radio. This transcript may not be reproduced in whole or in part
without prior written permission. For further information, please contact NPR's
Permissions Coordinator at (202) 513-2000.
National Public Radio (NPR)

SHOW: All Things Considered (8:00 PM ET) - NPR

February 9, 2004 Monday

LENGTH: 1291 words

HEADLINE: George Lakoff discusses the process of conceptual framing in politics,
and how the Republicans have been more successful at it than the Democrats

ANCHORS: MELISSA BLOCK; MICHELE NORRIS

BODY:
MELISSA BLOCK, host:

This is ALL THINGS CONSIDERED from NPR News. I'm Melissa Block.

MICHELE NORRIS, host:

And I'm Michele Norris.

In politics, there's a phrase called 'Name it and frame it.' It refers to the
fine art of creating a mental framework for an image that will set the terms of
a debate. For instance, when most people hear the word 'winter,' the mind
automatically associates it with cold weather and snow. According to George
Lakoff, framing issues in politics work much the same way.

Lakoff is a professor of linguistics at the University of California at
Berkeley, and he's somewhat of a rarity in politics these days. He's a
self-described liberal who regularly heaps praise on the Republicans for their
effective use of language. And he sharply criticizes the Democrats for their
failing to use language as an effective tool. Conservatives, he says, are
winning the rhetorical war because they literally set the terms for the debate.
To prove his point, Lakoff looks to the debate over taxes, specifically the use
of the phrase 'tax relief.'

Professor GEORGE LAKOFF (University of California at Berkeley): A linguist
looking at this phrase would look at the word 'relief' and say, 'Look, whenever
you have the word "relief," there is a conceptual structure, a frame in which
there is an inflicted party who has this affliction and a reliever who takes
this affliction away. And if anybody else wants to interfere with this hero, the
reliever, he's a villain. He's a bad guy.'

If you add 'tax' to 'relief,' that imposes a metaphor that taxation is
infliction. Anybody against the so-called 'tax relief plan' would be a villain.
All of this is largely unconscious and automatic, but built into the words 'tax
relief,' and people start thinking in terms of taxation as an affliction. Pretty
soon, the Democrats are even talking about tax relief, that is they've been
coopted by the language.

NORRIS: In the course of this electoral season, though, we see that Republicans
and Democrats have staked out opposing turf on the debate over taxes, and we can
actually hear that. We're going to listen to a couple of cuts of tape. We'll
hear first from President Bush speaking recently in South Carolina and,
secondly, from Senator John Kerry, who's campaigning for the Democratic
nomination. He's speaking on the campaign trail. Let's listen.

President GEORGE W. BUSH: The tax relief we passed, the willingness to have
people have more money in their pocket to spend, to save or to invest is helping
this economy recover from tough times.

(Soundbite of cheering and applause)

NORRIS: And now we'll hear from Senator John Kerry.

Senator JOHN KERRY (Democratic Presidential Candidate): Stand with me and
together, we're going to give America back its future by repealing the Bush tax
cuts for wealthy Americans and investing...

(Soundbite of cheering and applause)

Sen. KERRY: ...and investing in health care and education. Stand with us and
together, we will build a prosperity in this country...

NORRIS: Now Professor Lakoff, as we just heard, they used very different
language. Senator Kerry did not talk about tax relief, per se, but taxes in both
those cuts were portrayed as something that's very burdensome.

Prof. LAKOFF: That's right, and that's one of the things that the Democrats
haven't learned, to say what they even think taxes really are. For example,
taxes are kind of dues. Taxes are what you pay to be an American, US dues.
They're what you pay to use the infrastructure that other taxpayers have paid
for in the past: highways, the Internet, schools, the scientific establishment,
the court system, Medicare, Social Security and lots more. They're like paying
your dues. They're things that you should be proud of.

There's a problem, though. This idea of taxes as dues you pay is not out there.
The idea hasn't been repeated enough long enough for people to really see that
truth.

NORRIS: So how is it that America got the point where the notion that taxes are
a great burden has come to be embraced and just broadly accepted?

Prof. LAKOFF: This has been worked on by the conservative establishment for the
last 30 or 40 years. They've built a large network of think tanks, spending
about $2 billion over the last 30 or 40 years, about a billion during the '90s
alone. And over that time, they've trained candidates to talk in these terms
over and over and over. So you would hear expressions like 'tax-and-spend
liberals,' as if the spending were not for any good purpose, not, you know, for
anything necessary or good, and it just was like throwing your money away. That
idea was given over and over and over again. And then the idea that taxes are a
burden came in over and over again, repeated constantly for a long time.

NORRIS: When you talk about framing, what's the difference between framing and
propaganda?

Prof. LAKOFF: There's a big difference. Framing can be simply your best way of
saying what you believe, or of telling the truth as you see it. In propaganda,
the frames are used in ways that go against the truth and that are used for
political purposes and for purposes of gaining political power.

NORRIS: Professor, you argue that the conservatives are way ahead of the game
and that the Democrats need to figure out a way to get on the field and play by
the rules that, as you say, have already been established by the opposing party.
Whey should the Democrats even get in the game? Why not look for sort of an
alternative route, an alternative way?

Prof. LAKOFF: Because people think in terms of conceptual frames. They don't
just think in terms of the facts. And if they have frames that the facts won't
fit, the frames will not be absorbed. Unfortunately, the facts will not set you
free. That is, you can say over and over again that there were no weapons of
mass destruction and the president knew it. It bounces off. If people have been
given the frame by the president that this was a response to 9/11 and that they
didn't have war plans before that, if it's seen as simply a response to 9/11,
then that frame is accepted. And the frame includes that al-Qaeda was operating
in Iraq, that Saddam Hussein was al-Qaeda and so on, then the facts will just be
ignored.

NORRIS: So you're in an interesting position. You're an avowed progressive who
is singing the praises of the conservatives on the use of language.

Prof. LAKOFF: Well, I'm an academic. I call them the way I see them. The
conservatives have been very, very successful at this. They've been very good at
it, because a lot of Democrats think people vote their self-interest and they
think they can just simply go out there, talk to Americans in the red states and
say, 'Look, why are you voting Republican? What have the Republicans done for
you? How have your interests been advanced by this?' People don't vote their
self-interest purely. Not that they never do, but they don't just vote their
self-interest; they vote their identity. They vote their values. And if they see
George Bush as someone that they identify with and whose values they share,
they're very likely to vote for him even though he goes against their
self-interests. And this is something that the Democrats have not yet copped to,
and they need to.

NORRIS: Professor Lakoff, thank you so much for speaking with us.

Prof. LAKOFF: Thank you, Michele. It's been a pleasure to be here.

NORRIS: George Lakoff is a professor of linguistics and cognitive science at the
University of California at Berkeley. He's also the author of "Moral Politics:
How Liberals and Conservatives Think."

(Soundbite of music)

BLOCK: This is NPR, National Public Radio.

LOAD-DATE: February 10, 2004




Document 1 of 1.
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June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
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December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
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November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
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October 2005, Week 3
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October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
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February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
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April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
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March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
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November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
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October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
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September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
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August 2000, Week 3
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July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
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October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
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July 1999, Week 5
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June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
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April 1999, Week 5
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April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
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March 1999, Week 1
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February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
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September 1998, Week 1
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July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
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May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
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April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
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December 1997, Week 5
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October 1997, Week 5
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September 1997, Week 5
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September 1997, Week 3
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September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
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August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 4

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