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Re: My two cents too :) (Take two)


"Leonard G. Geddes" <[log in to unmask]>


Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals <[log in to unmask]>


Tue, 10 Aug 2004 14:46:57 -0400





text/plain (1001 lines)

[How do you get them to stick with the new studying?]

I get students to stick with the new study approach by building a "partnership" with them. (In the counseling field, this is called a therapeutic relationship. I am convinced it is the most important part.) Of course, usually I only have 30 minutes or so to build such a partnership, but it works. Additionally, I use metaphors. I try to find some experience where they have experienced a learning progression - playing a sport, learning to play an instrument, video games. It really doesn't matter, as long as there is an identifiable learning progression. That usually gets the light to click on.

Then I follow up with an email to see if and how the new approach is working.

I know my answer may sound too simplistic, but it works for me.

I hope this helps.

-----Original Message-----
From: Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals
[mailto:[log in to unmask]]On Behalf Of Susan Jones
Sent: Saturday, August 07, 2004 5:30 PM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: My two cents too :) (Take two)

My pennies' worth of comments -- and I may have missed some stuff here
and there with the vagaries of the format getting thru my email.
   Take everything I say with a grain of salt and perhaps just throw it
over your shoulder; the disadvantage to a group of mentors is some of us
might have utterly different perspectives (and they may not fit your
  Did you run the numbers on thei rhigh school performance? (My
students don't know the regurgitating method either ;) So when I read
your statements I just wonder why it's such a different group... but
frankly, the needs are similar; my guys also k now how to "look at"
their notes, not actively engage in them.
     How do you get them to stick with the new studying?
    A metaphor I use in going over math, especially when students tell
me the "I study for ever, I know it, but I just can't do it on a test"
line, is that many people "know" the material as well as they "Know"
that song they're singing along with on the radio. Sure you know it.
Now, it's solo time, stage center and floodlights. YOu have to know it
a *lot* better, because your notes and books aren't there to be the
radio to follow along with.
    And another subjective comment -- I thought the beginning part could
have been trimmed a little; seemed a little repetitive. Not sure which
lines I'd have trimmed, though, and it could be the audience you're
writing for wants more explanation.

Susan Jones
Academic Development Specialist
Academic Development Center
Parkland College
Champaign, IL 61821
[log in to unmask]
>>> [log in to unmask] 08/06/04 7:29 AM >>>
Leonard and Susan,
        I will add my 2 cents on this topic, as we also teach a Learning
Stratgies class here at USF and run into the same issue with test-prep
test-taking. Students say they "studied" for hours" do not understand
they were unable to pass tests. One issue is that they are still in the
high school mode of memorizing and regurgitating rote informaion. In
teaching my class I try to imbed some of the current findings in brain
science to help students understand the importantce of making multiple

connections to the material, and how it is helping them to
enhance their ability to retrieve informaiton. Yes, most importantly,
emphasize the use of some method of "testing" themselves to see what
really know or don't know.

        In our program, one of our instructors, Barbara McLay, has
developed a reading and study model that I think significantly improves
old SQ3R or 4R - The acronym is the PARROT Model = Preview, Ask
questions &
Activate prior knowledge, Read (in chunks or sections), Recite (retell
it to
yourself), Organize (here is the part where we teach them multiple ways
organize and connect to the material - tables, charts, compare/contrast,
highlight, notes in margins, etc.) and Test yourself (you don't know
you know until you have taken this step).

        This model has been published in our University Experience book,
will soon be available in her new Critical Reading Textbook, probably
available later in the spring. In the meantime, if you would like more
details, email me directly and I will send you some things as
Please be sure to credit her as this is copyright material - and very

        In addition, we focus heavily at the onset of our course on
students investigate their own metacognition and personal learning
and then help them learn to "intentionally" adujust strategies depending
the demands of the tasks or learning material. This has been extremely
effective, and lays the foundaion for success in future classes. We
a model develped by Christine Johnston at Rowan University in New Jersey
the Learning Connections Inventory and Interactive Learning Model.

        Hope you find this material helpful. For further details please
feel free to contact me outside the list serve at the email or phone
so as not to clog up the listserv system.

Pat Maher

Patricia A. Maher, Ph. D.
Director, The LEARN Program
University of South Florida
SVC 2124
4202 E. Fowler Ave.
Tampa, FL 33620-6970
[log in to unmask]

-----Original Message-----
From: Wickham, Susan M. [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
Sent: Thursday, August 05, 2004 5:18 PM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: New Student Success Approach (Take two)

Leonard, your findings coincide with my experiences teaching a study
strategies class and consulting with students who have requested
in test preparation. Generally, when I ask them how they study for
they report that they "go over" their lecture notes and their text. When
press for clarification, they explain that "going over" means "reading
rereading." And most of the time what they reread is the terms and
definitions. A few will have made vocabulary flash cards.

Your "hope-so" label is perfect. Students haven't quizzed themselves in
order to get feedback on what they do and don't understand. They haven't
attempted to paraphrase definitions to check their comprehension. They
haven't practiced creating examples of their own to facilitate answering
application questions. They haven't identified critical differences
terms (e.g. the distinctions between classical and operant
conditioning) which seem so obviously important to their instructors.
haven't made comparison charts to systematize their study of those

If they can come to understand the meaning and value of the recite and
review steps in SQ3R--and then to put those steps into practice--they
often raise their test grades by two letters. The key is convincing them
change their habits. I'll welcome anything you put in print on this

Sue Wickham
Academic Achievement Center
Des Moines Area Community College
2006 S. Ankeny Blvd.
Ankeny, IA 50021
Office: 515-965-7000
FAX: 515-965-7080

-----Original Message-----
From: Leonard G. Geddes [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
Sent: Thursday, August 05, 2004 1:52 PM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: New Student Success Approach (Take two)

This is a multi-part message in MIME format.

Content-Type: multipart/alternative;

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Hello Colleagues,
Sorry about the recent email snafu, I didn't know that we were unable to
send attachments. (Still new to this Listserve thing.) See the email =
I recently emailed the list concerning my search for a mentor. I stated
that I had been fleshing out a new students success approach that has =
proved very successful for us. =20 =20 A few individuals recommended
that I
use the Listserve as a mentor. = Well, here you go! I have cut and
three documents - a word = document (titled Basis for Presentation), a
presentation and a diagram. = They should appear in that order. Please
the word document in its = entirety because it is a predecessor to the
presentation. (Forgive me = for any typos; I have not had the time to
conduct a thorough proofread.) = If anything seems "weird", then email
back; I may have to resend = this email. =20 I eagerly welcome your
responses, criticisms, etc. =20 Thanks mentors! =20 Leonard G. Geddes,
Director of Multicultural Student Services & Student Success
College [log in to unmask]
(828) 328-7024
Basis for Presentation
After conducting several interviews/assessments of students' academic =
problems a few things were evident. (1) A good number of our =
students were good (and some even exceptional) high school = students
ranging from 3.2 - 3.8; SAT scores ranging from 900 - = 1200). Recent
national data supports this trend. (2) Many of these = students were
currently studying to no avail or had slacked off = on studying because
had grown tired of putting in the time and not = seeing results. (3)
all students (probationary as well as those = in good academic standing)
currently use the "hope-so" approach when it = comes to test preparation
will explain this method soon).=20 =20 I wanted to find out how and why
these students, who, based on their = high school experience, should
been doing quite well in college, = were performing so poorly. I began
inquire about each student's high = school experience. I wanted to know
everything that they included in = the studying category in high school
example reviewing notes and = handouts, class participation, textbook
reading, etc). I also wanted to = know the order in which they relied
each item (for example did they =
rely more on teacher handouts, class lectures, etc). Specifically, I =
wanted to know what they were looking for when doing these activities. =
example, if they relied heavily on textbook reading, then I wanted = to
what they were looking for when reading the textbook. In other = words,
what fundamental question(s) were they attempting to answer, = within
minds, when doing the activity? (I knew this was important = because
whatever mental question(s) they were trying to satisfy, would =
how they approach the activity and would formulate the basis = in which
confirm whether they had successfully studied.) =20 After I understood
high school experience, I then asked them what = they were doing in
Specifically, I wanted to know whether they = were relying on the same
"system of study," but perhaps more of it; or = had they developed a new
of studying. Without fail, they had relied = on the same "system."
of course makes sense because if it got = them through high school and
college, then it is the only method of = studying they know.) =20
going into all of the details, the interviews became very = predictable.
Each student shared, virtually, the same story. This = process led to
extremely interesting findings and caused a flurry = of questions to
my mind. Piecing these findings together and = answering the questions,
me to overhaul the current way our students = approach college studies
develop a new approach. This new, yet = simple, approach produced
results. =20 =20 In short, after meeting with students for 30 - 40
sessions, eight = out of ten students (many who were currently on
probation) = improved their test scores by 30 - 40 points (literally
low C's and = D's to A's and B's). I began receiving several emails and
phone calls = from formerly depressed students who were now excited and
confident = about their studies. Others stopped me around campus
speaking = of their much-improved grades.=20 =20 In the spring semester,
institution experienced a record low number = of academic suspensions,
many formerly "D" and "C" students now = boast of "A's" and "B's" (in
academic courses). I can't take all = of the credit because others have
contributed to this effort. However, = I am confident that the new
played a significant role in our = success. I have had the opportunity
presented some of my finding and new = approach at a few workshops. The
participants (students, faculty and =
staff) were very complimentary and stated that it was imperative that I
get this information out. =20 With that said, I would like to share my
findings and the new approach = that has catapulted many of our students
into academic success. This = approach has not been perfected; I have
written the foundation in = 2003, but I am still building upon that
foundation. I would like to get =
honest feedback from those of you on the Listserve. I do have =
aspirations to publish the material. However, I am unfamiliar with this
process. (Someone to bounce ideas off of would be extremely helpful.)
In the interest of brevity, I am presenting a skeletal overview. I am =
leaving out all of the examples and illustration, which I believe are =
important to tying it all together. So if any parts are unclear =
feel free shoot me an email. =20 The "Hope-so" approach=20 Currently,
students use the "hope-so" approach when it comes to = test preparation.
They hope they gathered the important material from = the classroom
they hope they understood the correct textbook = material; they hope
took good notes; they hope they prepared enough = for the test; and
after they've completed the test, they hope = (and pray!) that they'll
get a
good grade.=20 =20 The "hope-so" approach is rooted in the differences
between high school = and college. I am convinced that college is more
different than it is = difficult than high school. As a matter of fact,
difficulty is a = result of the differences. The reason students are
using the = "hope-so" method is because, although they know high school
college = is different, they do not know what these differences are, and
furthermore, what these differences mean, in terms of how they impact =
literally every aspect of collegiate learning. Much of students' =
success hinges upon the degree to which they understand the = difference
between high school and collegiate learning. =20 High School - "System
Each student entering college has either knowing or unknowing devised a
pretty routine system of study that they use to prepare for test. I =
this "system A"; it consists of all the activities that they = included
studying. "System A" was developed in high school to pass = high-school
level tests. Students use this system when entering college = because
the only system they know. They are aware that college is = more
challenging, and most increase their level of studying upon = entering
college. When they experience difficulty in a class, they = decide to
"system A" more vigilantly in an effort to improve. = However, they
wind up
implementing more or adding more to an ineffective = system, which leads
greater frustration. =20 The problem is that they don't realize that
is not merely an = extension of high school; it is an entirely different
animal. The = expected outcome (the ability professors are testing for)
collegiate = learning is different from that of high school learning.
the = expected outcome is different from that of high school, then the
process = necessary to achieve the outcome must also be different. With
that = said, two fundamental questions must be addressed, if students
are to
be =
successful: What is the expected outcome? What process will increase my
chances of meeting this outcome? =20 The primary ability most high
level tests are testing for is = knowing. So students the expected
is whether they know = (identity or recognize) the material. This
formulates the underlining = question in which they seek to satisfy when
studying. However, = collegiate test are testing for understanding and
application. Of = course we all know this, but do our students? More
importantly, do they = understand the impact this difference has on the
they approach all = collegiate activities. For example, the ability
tested sets the = stage for the approach to studying, the things focused
during = studying, and lastly, when their internal "cognitive
confirmation =
mechanism" assuring them that they have in fact studied to the degree =
necessary to pass the test. It doesn't matter how many study tips and =
strategies the student applies, if they are still looking for "knowing"
material (evidenced by definition searching and fact-finding), then they
will simply complete their study time knowing more things, but not =
understanding or knowing how to apply the material. =20 Here is how I
described some of these differences in a previous = presentation. =20
makes "System A" ineffective in college? =20 "System A" is ineffective
because it works different abilities than = those being tested for in
college. The following charts show the = difference in high school and
college tests.
                        High School

Teaches to "know" (identify or recognize as fact)
Teaches to "understand" (perceive the meaning/and or see the logic)

Questions ask "what"
Questions ask "how" and "why"
These differences may seem insignificant; but once clarified, students =
will have significant academic improvement. =20 Often times I will meet
professors and they will tell me students = aren't studying "enough",
students believe they are studying = "enough." Most times, neither is
lying; they just have incompatible = expectations, which can be easily
clarified if they simply knew what the = other meant by the term
So the question isn't are students = studying enough; rather, it is how
they define studying. The = following chart illustrates the difference
how college students and = college professors define studying.
                        College Student
            College Professor

Time: How much have I put in?
Results: What do you know as a result of the time you put in?

Identification: Do I know "A", "B", "C"?
Distinguish-ability: Can you distinguish "A" from "B" from "C"?

Definition-oriented: Do I know what "A" "B" and "C" mean?
Understanding: Can you see why "A" is "A" and "B" is "B" and "C" is "C"?
Again, once these subtle differences are clarified and corrected, huge =
results will follow. =20 Think of it in this manner. Let's say I am
to give you a physical = exercise test one month from now. You must
(i.e. "study") to pass = this test. You decide to run, lift weights,
and do
aerobics for 3hours = per day/five days per week. At the end of four
you show up for = the test. You are confident because your internal
"cognitive = confirmation mechanism" confirmed that you were prepared to
pass this = test. However, when you arrive, as confident as can be, I
you that = I am giving you a swimming test. Immediately your mouth drops
because = you know that the exercises did not worked the abilities I was
testing = for. You based your exercised on your own definition of an
exercise =
test. So even though you may be in the best shape of your life, you =
will not do as well on my test. You will receive a lower grade, not =
because you didn't work hard "enough" or because you don't have the =
skills; but because you worked different skills than I was testing for.

This is easily recognized and corrected in physical tests, but many of =
students waste several semesters before they finally come to this =
realization with their academic tests. =20 =20 Studying and exercising
similar in the sense that the degree of = satisfaction depends upon the
that the student or exerciser is = aiming for. The goal determines the
process necessary to achieve the = goal. If the goal is clearly
and students are aware of the = process necessary to meet the goal, then
student can assess and = adjust their learning to ensure that the goal
met. If the goal and = process are not clear, then the student will
be able to adjust = their learning and will have to depend on the
method. =20 With that said, my goal was to reduce the amount of
involved = by helping students better target their studying. I have
attached a = PowerPoint presentation from a recent intra-departmental
retreat.=20 =20 (FYI - The presentation centers on a booklet entitled
Learning = Reconsidered, which presents a holistic approach to student
learning. = Although the booklet is focused on the entire campus, it
coincided [and = almost echoed] what I was already doing with our
I tweaked my = presentation to cater to it.)=20 =20

Managed Learning

Student Affairs Director's Retreat

By: Leon=E1rd G. Geddes, Jr.

August 3, 2004


* The Learning Reconsidered booklet focused significantly on setting
expectations, learning processes and learning outcomes.

* It poses two key questions that are pertinent to students' academic
success: "Do they know how to learn? Can they manage their own =
(p. 17)

The "Hope-so" Approach

* Currently, most students use the "hope-so" approach when it comes
to test preparation. They hope they understood the correct textbook =
material; they hope they gathered the important material from the =
classroom discussion; they hope they took good notes; they hope they =
prepared enough for the test; and finally, after they've completed the =
test, they hope (and pray!) that they'll get a good grade.

Managed Learning

* It states that students should become "managers of their own =
learning processes and goals" and should be able to "guide their own =
learning." (pgs. 10-11)

* "What is needed is a new map, one that describes how learning =
occurs, where it occurs, how we can confirm that it is occurring, and =
the outcomes of learning are." (p. 11)

Managed Learning (Defined)

* Managed Learning (ML) is the ability to identify and maximize one's
own learning skills, while supervising one's own learning process to =
achieve desired results.

* It is a response to the current "hope-so" approach espoused by many

* It helps transform students who are in college into college =

Why Managed Learning?

* The expected outcome of collegiate learning is different (more so =
than difficult) than that of high school learning.

* If the expected outcome is different, then the process necessary to
achieve the outcome must be different as well.

Managed Learning =20

* Managed Learning helps students put their learning on course to =
meet its goal.

* It is not merely new study techniques, tips and strategies; it is
a new approach and paradigm to collegiate learning.

* This approach permeates every facet of collegiate learning - =
textbook reading, note taking, test preparation, "studying", classroom =
time, professor relations, etc.

Managed Learning (Basic Assumptions)

* Learning is a natural process.

* Learning is simple (point A - point B).

* Skill transfer is needed more than skill acquisition.

* If goals are clear, expectations are leveled, responsibilities are
understood, a learning "map" is created, and confidence is increased, =
students will be more likely to succeed.

Managed Learning Goals

* The overall goal is to help students study more efficiently and =

* Sub-goals are:

- To help students understand the expected outcome of college

- To help students understand the components involved in achieving =
this outcome

- To help students learn how to assess and adjust their learning to =
meet goals

What Does It Take to Manage Learning?=20

* A clear understanding of professors' expectations

* An understanding of, and distinction between, student and professor

* A knowledge of the key factors involved in the learning process (as
they relate to collegiate test preparation)

What Does It Take to Manage Learning? (Cont'd)

4. An awareness of when learning is occurring

5. The ability to assess what has been learned and what still needs to =

6. The ability to adjust one's learning to meet expected goals



Components of Collegiate Learning

* Motivation

* Class Participation

* Active Reading

* Class Notes

* Text Notes

* Incremental Studying

* Synthesis

* Understanding

(See archway diagram)

Benefits of Managed Learning

* Students will become more intentional, efficient and effective =

* The managed learning approach can potentially influence student =
development in areas of leadership, general management and personal =
management because students will become more purpose-driven, =
process-oriented and results-focused. =20

Benefits of Managed Learning

* Students will learn how to assess and adjust processes to meet =
goals; and will develop a particular appreciation for the role that =
efficiency, effectiveness and on-going assessment play in goal =



Most collegiate tests test for understanding; thus successful students =
those who understand the material. Understanding refers to the =
ability to perceive the meaning of, or comprehend the subject. = Note
understanding is positioned at the top of the archway, and = other
items form supporting pillars. In order for students' = to gain
understanding, to the degree that their professor will be = testing for,
they must first successfully accomplish other items along = the archway.
=20 The left-hand Pillar lists the in-class tasks students' are
= for, while the right-hand Pillar lists the out-of-class things in
which =
students' are responsible. The student who balances and integrates both
will have the greatest chance at understanding the subject. =20 =20
from the base, each task builds upon the other. =20 =20 =20 =20

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December 2009, Week 5
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