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Subject:

Re: New Student Success Approach (Take two)

From:

"Leonard G. Geddes" <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 6 Aug 2004 08:41:43 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (3157 lines)

The feedback I have been receiving has been great.  It is great to have all of these added pieced and different perspectives.  I am definitely pleased to have joined the Listserve.  Thanks to all!!

-----Original Message-----
From: Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals
[mailto:[log in to unmask]]On Behalf Of Maher, Patricia
Sent: Friday, August 06, 2004 8:29 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: New Student Success Approach (Take two)


Leonard and Susan,
        I will add my 2 cents on this topic, as we also teach a Learning
Stratgies class here at USF and run into the same issue with test-prep and
test-taking.  Students say they "studied" for hours" do not understand how
they were unable to pass tests.  One issue is that they are still in the
high school mode of memorizing and regurgitating rote informaion.  In
teaching my class I try to imbed some of the current findings in brain
science to help students understand the importantce of making multiple
connections to the material, and how it is helping them to physiologically
enhance their ability to retrieve informaiton.  Yes, most importantly, we
emphasize the use of some method of "testing" themselves to see what they
really know or don't know.

        In our program, one of our instructors, Barbara McLay,  has
developed a reading and study model that I think significantly improves the
old SQ3R or 4R - The acronym is the PARROT Model = Preview, Ask questions &
Activate prior knowledge, Read (in chunks or sections), Recite (retell it to
yourself), Organize (here is the part where we teach them multiple ways to
organize and connect to the material - tables, charts, compare/contrast,
highlight, notes in margins, etc.) and Test yourself (you don't know what
you know until you have taken this step).

        This model has been published in our University Experience book, and
will soon be available in her new Critical Reading Textbook, probably
available later in the spring.  In the meantime, if you would like more
details, email me directly and I will send you some things as attachments.
Please be sure to credit her as this is copyright material - and very
effective.

        In addition, we focus heavily at the onset of our course on helping
students investigate their own metacognition and personal learning profile,
and then help them learn to "intentionally" adujust strategies depending on
the demands of the tasks or learning material.  This has been extremely
effective, and lays the foundaion for success in future classes.  We utilize
a model develped by Christine Johnston at Rowan University in New Jersey -
the Learning Connections Inventory and Interactive Learning Model.

        Hope you find this material helpful.  For further details please
feel free to contact me outside the list serve at the email or phone below,
so as not to clog up the listserv system.

Pat Maher

Patricia A. Maher, Ph. D.
Director, The LEARN Program
University of South Florida
SVC 2124
4202 E. Fowler Ave.
Tampa, FL  33620-6970
813-974-9281
[log in to unmask]
http://isis2.admin.usf.edu/reading/




-----Original Message-----
From: Wickham, Susan M. [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
Sent: Thursday, August 05, 2004 5:18 PM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Re: New Student Success Approach (Take two)


Leonard, your findings coincide with my experiences teaching a study
strategies class and consulting with students who have requested assistance
in test preparation. Generally, when I ask them how they study for tests,
they report that they "go over" their lecture notes and their text. When I
press for clarification, they explain that "going over" means "reading and
rereading." And most of the time what they reread is the terms and
definitions. A few will have made vocabulary flash cards.

Your "hope-so" label is perfect. Students haven't quizzed themselves in
order to get feedback on what they do and don't understand. They haven't
attempted to paraphrase definitions to check their comprehension. They
haven't practiced creating examples of their own to facilitate answering
application questions. They haven't identified critical differences among
terms (e.g. the distinctions between classical and operant
conditioning) which seem so obviously important to their instructors. They
haven't made comparison charts to systematize their study of those
differences.

If they can come to understand the meaning and value of the recite and
review steps in SQ3R--and then to put those steps into practice--they can
often raise their test grades by two letters. The key is convincing them to
change their habits. I'll welcome anything you put in print on this issue.

Sue Wickham
Academic Achievement Center
Des Moines Area Community College
2006 S. Ankeny Blvd.
Ankeny, IA 50021
Office: 515-965-7000
FAX: 515-965-7080


-----Original Message-----
From: Leonard G. Geddes [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
Sent: Thursday, August 05, 2004 1:52 PM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: New Student Success Approach (Take two)

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Hello Colleagues,
=20
Sorry about the recent email snafu, I didn't know that we were unable to =
send attachments.  (Still new to this Listserve thing.) See the email =
below.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-=
----------------------------------
=20
=20
=20
I recently emailed the list concerning my search for a mentor.  I stated =
that I had been fleshing out a new students success approach that has =
proved very successful for us. =20 =20 A few individuals recommended that I
use the Listserve as a mentor.  = Well, here you go!  I have cut and pasted
three documents - a word = document (titled Basis for Presentation), a
presentation and a diagram. = They should appear in that order.  Please read
the word document in its = entirety because it is a predecessor to the
presentation.  (Forgive me = for any typos; I have not had the time to
conduct a thorough proofread.) =  If anything seems "weird", then email me
back; I may have to resend = this email. =20 I eagerly welcome your
responses, criticisms, etc. =20 Thanks mentors! =20 Leonard G. Geddes, Jr.
Director of Multicultural Student Services & Student Success Lenoir-Rhyne
College www.lrc.edu [log in to unmask]
(828) 328-7024
=20
=20
Basis for Presentation
=20
After conducting several interviews/assessments of students' academic =
problems a few things were evident.  (1) A good number of our = probationary
students were good (and some even exceptional) high school = students (GPA's
ranging from 3.2 - 3.8; SAT scores ranging from 900 - = 1200).  Recent
national data supports this trend.  (2) Many of these = students were either
currently studying to no avail or had slacked off = on studying because they
had grown tired of putting in the time and not = seeing results.  (3) Almost
all students (probationary as well as those = in good academic standing)
currently use the "hope-so" approach when it = comes to test preparation (I
will explain this method soon).=20 =20 I wanted to find out how and why
these students, who, based on their = high school experience, should have
been doing quite well in college, = were performing so poorly.  I began to
inquire about each student's high = school experience.  I wanted to know
everything that they included in = the studying category in high school (for
example reviewing notes and = handouts, class participation, textbook
reading, etc).  I also wanted to = know the order in which they relied on
each item (for example did they =
rely more on teacher handouts, class lectures, etc).   Specifically, I =
wanted to know what they were looking for when doing these activities. = For
example, if they relied heavily on textbook reading, then I wanted = to know
what they were looking for when reading the textbook.  In other = words,
what fundamental question(s) were they attempting to answer, = within their
minds, when doing the activity?  (I knew this was important = because
whatever mental question(s) they were trying to satisfy, would = determine
how they approach the activity and would formulate the basis = in which they
confirm whether they had successfully studied.) =20 After I understood their
high school experience, I then asked them what = they were doing in college.
Specifically, I wanted to know whether they = were relying on the same
"system of study," but perhaps more of it; or = had they developed a new way
of studying.  Without fail, they had relied = on the same "system."  (This
of course makes sense because if it got = them through high school and into
college, then it is the only method of = studying they know.) =20 Without
going into all of the details, the interviews became very = predictable.
Each student shared, virtually, the same story.  This = process led to some
extremely interesting findings and caused a flurry = of questions to bombard
my mind.  Piecing these findings together and = answering the questions, led
me to overhaul the current way our students = approach college studies and
develop a new approach.  This new, yet = simple, approach produced dramatic
results. =20 =20 In short, after meeting with students for 30 - 40 minute
sessions, eight = out of ten students (many who were currently on academic
probation) = improved their test scores by 30 - 40 points (literally from
low C's and = D's to A's and B's).  I began receiving several emails and
phone calls = from formerly depressed students who were now excited and
confident = about their studies.  Others stopped me around campus smiling
speaking = of their much-improved grades.=20 =20 In the spring semester, my
institution experienced a record low number = of academic suspensions, and
many formerly "D" and "C" students now = boast of "A's" and "B's" (in good
academic courses).  I can't take all = of the credit because others have
contributed to this effort.  However, = I am confident that the new approach
played a significant role in our = success. I have had the opportunity to
presented some of my finding and new = approach at a few workshops.  The
participants (students, faculty and =
staff) were very complimentary and stated that it was imperative that I =
get this information out. =20 With that said, I would like to share my
findings and the new approach = that has catapulted many of our students
into academic success.  This = approach has not been perfected; I have copy
written the foundation in = 2003, but I am still building upon that
foundation.  I would like to get =
honest feedback from those of you on the Listserve.   I do have =
aspirations to publish the material. However, I am unfamiliar with this =
process.  (Someone to bounce ideas off of would be extremely helpful.) =20
In the interest of brevity, I am presenting a skeletal overview.  I am =
leaving out all of the examples and illustration, which I believe are = most
important to tying it all together.  So if any parts are unclear = please
feel free shoot me an email. =20 The "Hope-so" approach=20 Currently, most
students use the "hope-so" approach when it comes to = test preparation.
They hope they gathered the important material from = the classroom lecture;
they hope they understood the correct textbook = material; they hope they
took good notes; they hope they prepared enough = for the test; and finally,
after they've completed the test, they hope = (and pray!) that they'll get a
good grade.=20 =20 The "hope-so" approach is rooted in the differences
between high school = and college.  I am convinced that college is more
different than it is = difficult than high school.  As a matter of fact, the
difficulty is a = result of the differences.  The reason students are stuck
using the = "hope-so" method is because, although they know high school and
college = is different, they do not know what these differences are, and =
furthermore, what these differences mean, in terms of how they impact =
literally every aspect of collegiate learning.  Much of students' = academic
success hinges upon the degree to which they understand the = difference
between high school and collegiate learning. =20 High School - "System A"
Each student entering college has either knowing or unknowing devised a =
pretty routine system of study that they use to prepare for test.  I = call
this "system A"; it consists of all the activities that they = included when
studying.  "System A" was developed in high school to pass = high-school
level tests.  Students use this system when entering college = because it's
the only system they know.  They are aware that college is = more
challenging, and most increase their level of studying upon = entering
college.  When they experience difficulty in a class, they = decide to use
"system A" more vigilantly in an effort to improve.  = However, they wind up
implementing more or adding more to an ineffective = system, which leads to
greater frustration. =20 The problem is that they don't realize that college
is not merely an = extension of high school; it is an entirely different
animal.  The = expected outcome (the ability professors are testing for) of
collegiate = learning is different from that of high school learning.  If
the = expected outcome is different from that of high school, then the
process = necessary to achieve the outcome must also be different.  With
that = said, two fundamental questions must be addressed, if students are to
be =
successful: What is the expected outcome?  What process will increase my =
chances of meeting this outcome? =20 The primary ability most high school
level tests are testing for is = knowing.  So students the expected outcome
is whether they know = (identity or recognize) the material.  This
formulates the underlining = question in which they seek to satisfy when
studying. However, = collegiate test are testing for understanding and
application.  Of = course we all know this, but do our students?  More
importantly, do they = understand the impact this difference has on the way
they approach all = collegiate activities.  For example, the ability being
tested sets the = stage for the approach to studying, the things focused on
during = studying, and lastly, when their internal "cognitive confirmation =
mechanism" assuring them that they have in fact studied to the degree =
necessary to pass the test.  It doesn't matter how many study tips and =
strategies the student applies, if they are still looking for "knowing" =
material (evidenced by definition searching and fact-finding), then they =
will simply complete their study time knowing more things, but not =
understanding or knowing how to apply the material. =20 Here is how I have
described some of these differences in a previous = presentation. =20 What
makes "System A" ineffective in college? =20 "System A" is ineffective
because it works different abilities than = those being tested for in
college.  The following charts show the = difference in high school and
college tests.
                        High School
=
              College

Teaches to "know" (identify or recognize as fact)
Teaches to "understand" (perceive the meaning/and or see the logic)

Questions ask "what"
Questions ask "how" and "why"
=20
These differences may seem insignificant; but once clarified, students =
will have significant academic improvement. =20 Often times I will meet with
professors and they will tell me students = aren't studying "enough", but
students believe they are studying = "enough."  Most times, neither is
lying; they just have incompatible = expectations, which can be easily
clarified if they simply knew what the = other meant by the term "studying."
So the question isn't are students = studying enough; rather, it is how do
they define studying.  The = following chart illustrates the difference in
how college students and = college professors define studying.
                        College Student
=
            College Professor

Time: How much have I put in?
Results: What do you know as a result of the time you put in?

Identification: Do I know "A", "B", "C"?
Distinguish-ability: Can you distinguish "A" from "B" from "C"?

Definition-oriented: Do I know what "A" "B" and "C" mean?
Understanding: Can you see why "A" is "A" and "B" is "B" and "C" is "C"? =20
Again, once these subtle differences are clarified and corrected, huge =
results will follow. =20 Think of it in this manner.  Let's say I am going
to give you a physical = exercise test one month from now.  You must train
(i.e. "study") to pass = this test.  You decide to run, lift weights, and do
aerobics for 3hours = per day/five days per week.  At the end of four weeks,
you show up for = the test.  You are confident because your internal
"cognitive = confirmation mechanism" confirmed that you were prepared to
pass this = test.  However, when you arrive, as confident as can be, I tell
you that = I am giving you a swimming test. Immediately your mouth drops
because = you know that the exercises did not worked the abilities I was
testing = for. You based your exercised on your own definition of an
exercise =
test.   So even though you may be in the best shape of your life, you =
will not do as well on my test.  You will receive a lower grade, not =
because you didn't work hard "enough" or because you don't have the =
skills; but because you worked different skills than I was testing for. =

=20
This is easily recognized and corrected in physical tests, but many of = our
students waste several semesters before they finally come to this =
realization with their academic tests. =20 =20 Studying and exercising are
similar in the sense that the degree of = satisfaction depends upon the goal
that the student or exerciser is = aiming for.  The goal determines the
process necessary to achieve the = goal.  If the goal is clearly understood
and students are aware of the = process necessary to meet the goal, then the
student can assess and = adjust their learning to ensure that the goal is
met.  If the goal and = process are not clear, then the student will never
be able to adjust = their learning and will have to depend on the "hope-so"
method. =20 With that said, my goal was to reduce the amount of "hope-so"
involved = by helping students better target their studying.  I have
attached a = PowerPoint presentation from a recent intra-departmental
retreat.=20 =20 (FYI - The presentation centers on a booklet entitled
Learning = Reconsidered, which presents a holistic approach to student
learning.  = Although the booklet is focused on the entire campus, it
coincided [and = almost echoed] what I was already doing with our students.
I tweaked my = presentation to cater to it.)=20 =20

Managed Learning


Student Affairs Director's Retreat


By: Leon=E1rd G. Geddes, Jr.


August 3, 2004


Introduction


*    The Learning Reconsidered booklet focused significantly on setting
=
expectations, learning processes and learning outcomes.


*    It poses two key questions that are pertinent to students' academic
=
success: "Do they know how to learn? Can they manage their own = learning?"
(p. 17)


The "Hope-so" Approach


*     Currently, most students use the "hope-so" approach when it comes
=
to test preparation.  They hope they understood the correct textbook =
material; they hope they gathered the important material from the =
classroom discussion; they hope they took good notes; they hope they =
prepared enough for the test; and finally, after they've completed the =
test, they hope (and pray!) that they'll get a good grade.


Managed Learning


*    It states that students should become "managers of their own =
learning processes and goals" and should be able to "guide their own =
learning." (pgs. 10-11)


*    "What is needed is a new map, one that describes how learning =
occurs, where it occurs, how we can confirm that it is occurring, and = what
the outcomes of learning are." (p. 11)


Managed Learning (Defined)


*    Managed Learning (ML) is the ability to identify and maximize one's
=
own learning skills, while supervising one's own learning process to =
achieve desired results.


*    It is a response to the current "hope-so" approach espoused by many
=
students.


*    It helps transform students who are in college into college =
students.


Why Managed Learning?


*    The expected outcome of collegiate learning is different (more so =
than difficult) than that of high school learning.


*    If the expected outcome is different, then the process necessary to
=
achieve the outcome must be different as well.


Managed Learning    =20


*     Managed Learning helps students put their learning on course to =
meet its goal.


*     It is not merely new study techniques, tips and strategies; it is
=
a new approach and paradigm to collegiate learning.


*     This approach permeates every facet of collegiate learning - =
textbook reading, note taking, test preparation, "studying", classroom =
time, professor relations, etc.


Managed Learning (Basic Assumptions)


*     Learning is a natural process.


*     Learning is simple (point A - point B).


*     Skill transfer is needed more than skill acquisition.


*     If goals are clear, expectations are leveled, responsibilities are
=
understood, a learning "map" is created, and confidence is increased, = then
students will be more likely to succeed.


Managed Learning Goals


*    The overall goal is to help students study more efficiently and =
effectively.


*    Sub-goals are:


-    To help students understand the expected outcome of college


-    To help students understand the components involved in achieving =
this outcome


-    To help students learn how to assess and adjust their learning to =
meet goals


What Does It Take to Manage Learning?=20


*    A clear understanding of professors' expectations


*    An understanding of, and distinction between, student and professor
=
responsibilities


*    A knowledge of the key factors involved in the learning process (as
=
they relate to collegiate test preparation)


What Does It Take to Manage Learning? (Cont'd)


4. An awareness of when learning is occurring


5. The ability to assess what has been learned and what still needs to = be
learned


6. The ability to adjust one's learning to meet expected goals


=20


=20


Components of Collegiate Learning


*    Motivation


*    Class Participation


*    Active Reading


*    Class Notes


*    Text Notes


*    Incremental Studying


*    Synthesis


*    Understanding


(See archway diagram)


Benefits of Managed Learning


*      Students will become more intentional, efficient and effective =
learners.


*      The managed learning approach can potentially influence student =
development in areas of leadership, general management and personal =
management because students will become more purpose-driven, =
process-oriented and results-focused. =20


Benefits of Managed Learning


*      Students will learn how to assess and adjust processes to meet =
goals; and will develop a particular appreciation for the role that =
efficiency, effectiveness and on-going assessment play in goal =
achievement.=20

=20
=20
=20
=20
=20
=20
=20
=20

                        =09
                        =20
=09
=09

Most collegiate tests test for understanding; thus successful students = are
those who understand the material.  Understanding refers to the = students'
ability to perceive the meaning of, or comprehend the subject. =  Note that
understanding is positioned at the top of the archway, and = other segmented
items form supporting pillars.  In order for students' = to gain
understanding, to the degree that their professor will be = testing for,
they must first successfully accomplish other items along = the archway. =20
=20 The left-hand Pillar lists the in-class tasks students' are responsible
= for, while the right-hand Pillar lists the out-of-class things in which =
students' are responsible.  The student who balances and integrates both =
will have the greatest chance at understanding the subject. =20 =20 Starting
from the base, each task builds upon the other. =20  =20 =20 =20

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<body lang=3DEN-US style=3D'tab-interval:.5in'>

<div class=3DSection1>

<p class=3DMsoTitle align=3Dleft style=3D'text-align:left'><b =
style=3D'mso-ansi-font-weight: normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:normal'>Hello =
Colleagues,<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle align=3Dleft style=3D'text-align:left'><b =
style=3D'mso-ansi-font-weight: normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:normal'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle align=3Dleft style=3D'text-align:left'><b =
style=3D'mso-ansi-font-weight: normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:normal'>Sorry about the recent = email
snafu, I didn&#8217;t know that we were unable to send attachments.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>(Still new to this Listserve =
thing.)
See the email below.<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle align=3Dleft style=3D'text-align:left'><b =
style=3D'mso-ansi-font-weight: normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:normal'>--------------------------
-=
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-=
-------<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle align=3Dleft style=3D'text-align:left'><b =
style=3D'mso-ansi-font-weight: normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:normal'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle align=3Dleft style=3D'text-align:left'><b =
style=3D'mso-ansi-font-weight: normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-weight:normal'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>I recently emailed the list
concerning my search = for a mentor.&nbsp; I stated that I had been fleshing
out a new students = success approach that has proved very successful for
us.&nbsp; = </span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>A few individuals
recommended that I use the = Listserve as a mentor.&nbsp; Well, here you
go!&nbsp; I have cut and pasted three = documents - a word document (titled
Basis for Presentation), a presentation and a diagram.&nbsp; They should
appear in that order.<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>Please read the word document in its entirety because =
it is a predecessor to the presentation.&nbsp; (Forgive me for any typos; I
= have not had the time to conduct a thorough proofread.)<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>If anything seems &#8220;weird&#8221;, then email me =
back; I may have to resend this email.</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>I eagerly welcome your
responses, criticisms, = etc.</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>Thanks
mentors!</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font-size:
12.0pt'>&nbsp;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D4 color=3Dmaroon face=3Dta><span =
style=3D'font-size:
13.5pt;font-family:ta;color:maroon'>Leonard G. Geddes, =
Jr.</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D4 color=3Dmaroon face=3Dta><span =
style=3D'font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:ta;color:maroon'>Director of
Multicultural Student = Services</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D4 color=3Dmaroon face=3Dta><span =
style=3D'font-size:
13.5pt;font-family:ta;color:maroon'>&amp; Student =
Success</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D4 color=3Dmaroon face=3Dta><span =
style=3D'font-size: 13.5pt;font-family:ta;color:maroon'>Lenoir-Rhyne =
College</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D4 color=3Dmaroon face=3Dta><span =
style=3D'font-size:
13.5pt;font-family:ta;color:maroon'>www.lrc.edu</span></font><o:p></o:p>
<=
/p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D4 color=3Dmaroon face=3Dta><span =
style=3D'font-size:
13.5pt;font-family:ta;color:maroon'>[log in to unmask]</span></font><o:p>
<=
/o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D4 color=3Dmaroon face=3Dta><span =
style=3D'font-size:
13.5pt;font-family:ta;color:maroon'>(828) =
328-7024</span></font><o:p></o:p></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font =
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font =
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font =
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>Basis for =
Presentation</span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoTitle><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font =
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>After conducting several
interviews/assessments of students&#8217; academic problems a few things
were evident.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>(1) A good number of our =
probationary students were good (and some even exceptional) high school
students = (GPA&#8217;s ranging from 3.2 &#8211; 3.8; SAT scores ranging
from 900 &#8211; = 1200).<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Recent national data supports =
this trend.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>(2) Many of these
= students were either currently studying to no avail or had slacked off on
= studying because they had grown tired of putting in the time and not
seeing results.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>(3) Almost
all = students (probationary as well as those in good academic standing)
currently use = the &#8220;hope-so&#8221; approach when it comes to test
preparation (I will = explain this method soon).
<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>I wanted to find out <i =
style=3D'mso-bidi-font-style:normal'><span
style=3D'font-style:italic'>how</span></i> and <i =
style=3D'mso-bidi-font-style:
normal'><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>why</span></i> these students, =
who, based on their high school experience, should have been doing quite
well = in college, were performing so poorly.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: =
yes">&nbsp; </span>I began to inquire about each student&#8217;s high school
= experience.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>I wanted to know everything = that
they included in the studying category in high school (for example reviewing
= notes and handouts, class participation, textbook reading, etc).<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>I also wanted to know the = order
in which they relied on each item (for example did they rely more on =
teacher handouts, class lectures, etc).<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>Specifically, I wanted to know what they were
looking for when = doing these activities.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>For = example, if they relied heavily on textbook
reading, then I wanted to know what they = were looking for when reading the
textbook.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: = yes">&nbsp; </span>In other words,
what fundamental question(s) were they attempting = to answer, within their
minds, when doing the activity?<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>(I knew this was important because whatever mental
question(s) they were trying to satisfy, would determine how they = approach
the activity and would formulate the basis in which they confirm whether =
they had successfully studied.)<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>After I understood their
high school experience, I = then asked them what they were doing in
college.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Specifically, I
wanted to know whether they were = relying on the same &#8220;system of
study,&#8221; but perhaps more of it; or had = they developed a new way of
studying.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Without = fail,
they had relied on the same &#8220;system.&#8221;<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;
</span>(This of course makes sense because if it got them through high =
school and into college, then it is the only method of studying they =
know.)<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>Without going into all of
the details, the = interviews became very predictable.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; = </span>Each student shared, virtually,
the same story.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>This process
led to some extremely interesting = findings and caused a flurry of
questions to bombard my mind.<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>Piecing these findings together and answering the =
questions, led me to overhaul the current way our students approach college
studies = and develop a new approach.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; = </span>This new, yet simple, approach produced dramatic
results.<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>In short, after meeting
with students for 30 = &#8211; 40 minute sessions, eight out of ten students
(many who were currently on academic
probation) improved their test scores by 30 &#8211; 40 points (literally =
from low C&#8217;s and D&#8217;s to A&#8217;s and B&#8217;s).<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: = yes">&nbsp; </span>I began receiving several emails
and phone calls from formerly depressed = students who were now excited and
confident about their studies.<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>Others stopped me around campus smiling speaking of =
their much-improved grades. <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>In the spring semester, my
institution experienced = a record low number of academic suspensions, and
many formerly = &#8220;D&#8221; and &#8220;C&#8221; students now boast of
&#8220;A&#8217;s&#8221; and = &#8220;B&#8217;s&#8221; (in good academic
courses).<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>I can&#8217;t take all of the =
credit because others have contributed to this effort.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: = yes">&nbsp; </span>However, I am confident that the
new approach played a = significant role in our
success.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>I have had the opportunity
to presented some of my finding and new approach at a few workshops.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The participants (students,
faculty and staff) were = very complimentary and stated that it was
imperative that I get this = information out.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>With that said, I would
like to share my findings = and the new approach that has catapulted many of
our students into academic success.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;
</span>This approach = has not been perfected; I have copy written the
foundation in 2003, but I am = still building upon that foundation.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; = </span><b><span
style=3D'font-weight:bold'>I would like to get honest feedback from = those
of you on the </span></b><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><span
style=3D'font-weight:bold'>Listserve.</span></b><span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>I do have aspirations to publish the material.
However, I am unfamiliar with this process.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>(Someone to bounce ideas off of would be extremely =
helpful.)<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>In the interest of brevity,
I am presenting a = skeletal overview.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>I am leaving = out all of the examples and illustration,
which I believe are most important to = tying it all together.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>So if any = parts are unclear
please feel free shoot me an email.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font =
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Garamond;font-weight:
bold'>The &#8220;Hope-so&#8221; approach = <o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>Currently, most students
use the = &#8220;hope-so&#8221; approach when it comes to test
preparation.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; = </span>They <i><span
style=3D'font-style:italic'>hope</span></i> they gathered the = important
material from the classroom lecture; they <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>hope</span></i>
they understood the correct textbook material; they <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:
italic'>hope</span></i> they took good notes; they <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:
italic'>hope</span></i> they prepared enough for the test; and finally, =
after they&#8217;ve completed the test, they <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>hope</span></i>
(and pray!) that they&#8217;ll get a good grade. =
<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>The &#8220;hope-so&#8221;
approach is rooted in = the differences between high school and
college.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; = </span>I am convinced
that college is more <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>different</span></i>
than it is <i><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>difficult</span></i> = than
high school.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>As a matter of =
fact, the difficulty is a result of the differences.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The reason students are stuck
using the = &#8220;hope-so&#8221; method is because, although they know high
school and college is different, they = do not know what these differences
are, and furthermore, what these differences = mean, in terms of how they
impact literally every aspect of collegiate = learning.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Much of students&#8217; = academic
success hinges upon the degree to which they understand the difference
between = high school and collegiate learning.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><b style=3D'mso-bidi-font-weight:normal'><font =
size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Garamond;font-weight:
bold'>High School &#8211; &#8220;System =
A&#8221;<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>Each student entering
college has either knowing = or unknowing devised a pretty routine system of
study that they use to = prepare for test.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>I call this = &#8220;system A&#8221;; it consists of all
the activities that they included when studying.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>&#8220;System A&#8221; was =
developed in high school to pass high-school level tests.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Students use this system when
entering college because it&#8217;s = the only system they know.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>They = are aware that college is
more challenging, and most increase their level of = studying upon entering
college.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; = </span>When they
experience difficulty in a class, they decide to use &#8220;system =
A&#8221; more vigilantly in an effort to improve.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; = </span>However, they wind up
implementing more or adding more to an ineffective system, = which leads to
greater frustration.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>The problem is that they
don&#8217;t realize that = college is not merely an extension of high
school; it is an entirely different animal.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; = </span></span></font><font face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'>The
expected outcome (the ability professors are testing for) of collegiate
learning is different from that of high school learning.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span><b><span =
style=3D'font-weight:bold'>If the expected outcome is different from that of
high school, then the = process necessary to achieve the outcome must also
be different.</span></b><span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>With that said, two = fundamental
questions must be addressed, if students are to be successful: What is = the
expected outcome?<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>What =
process will increase my chances of meeting this =
outcome?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'>The primary ability = most
high school level tests are testing for is <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>knowing</span></i>.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>So students the expected = outcome
is whether they know (identity or recognize) the material.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>This formulates the = underlining
question in which they seek to satisfy when studying. However, = collegiate
test are testing for <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>understanding</span></i> and <i><span
style=3D'font-style:italic'>application</span></i>.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Of course we all know this, = but
do our students?<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>More =
importantly, do they understand the impact this difference has on the way
they approach = all collegiate activities.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; = </span>For example, the ability being tested sets the stage
for the approach to = studying, the things focused on during studying, and
lastly, when their internal = &#8220;cognitive confirmation mechanism&#8221;
assuring them that they have in fact = studied to the degree necessary to
pass the test.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: = yes">&nbsp; </span>It
doesn&#8217;t matter how many study tips and strategies the = student
applies, if they are still looking for &#8220;knowing&#8221; material =
(evidenced by definition searching and fact-finding), then they will simply
complete their study = time knowing more things, but not understanding or
knowing how to apply the material.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'>Here is how I have =
described some of these differences in a previous =
presentation.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal align=3Dcenter style=3D'text-align:center'><font =
size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3DSubway><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:Subway;
color:maroon'>What makes &#8220;System A&#8221; ineffective in =
college?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>&#8220;System A&#8221;
is = ineffective because it works different abilities than those being
tested for in college.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The following charts show the
difference in high school and college = tests.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'><span =
style=3D'mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbs
p=
;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><b><span style=3D'font-weight:bold'><span =
style=3D'mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbs
p=
;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>High
School<span style=3D'mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; =
</span></span></b><span
style=3D'mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbs
p= ;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp
;=
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><b><span style=3D'font-weight:bold'><span =
style=3D'mso-tab-count:2'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbs
p= ;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp
;=
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; = </span>College</span></b><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<table border=3D1 cellspacing=3D0 cellpadding=3D0 =
style=3D'border-collapse:collapse;
 border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-padding-alt:0in =
5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>  <tr>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop style=3D'width:221.4pt;border:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Teaches to &#8220;<i><span =
style=3D'font-style:
  italic'>know</span></i>&#8221; (identify or recognize as =
fact)<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop style=3D'width:221.4pt;border:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in =
5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Teaches to &#8220;<i><span =
style=3D'font-style:
  italic'>understand</span></i>&#8221; (perceive the meaning/and or see =
the logic)<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop style=3D'width:221.4pt;border:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in =
5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Questions ask &#8220;<i><span
  = style=3D'font-style:italic'>what</span></i>&#8221;<o:p></o:p></span></fo
n=
t></p>
  </td>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop =
style=3D'width:221.4pt;border-top:none;border-left:
  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext .5pt;border-right:solid windowtext =
.5pt;
  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Questions ask &#8220;<i><span
  style=3D'font-style:italic'>how</span></i>&#8221; and &#8220;<i><span =
style=3D'font-style:
  italic'>why</span></i>&#8221;<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>These differences may
seem = insignificant; but once clarified, students will have significant
academic = improvement.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Often times I will meet
with = professors and they will tell me students aren&#8217;t studying =
&#8220;enough&#8221;, but students believe they are studying
&#8220;enough.&#8221;<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: = yes">&nbsp; </span>Most
times, neither is lying; they just have incompatible expectations, which =
can be easily clarified if they simply knew what the other meant by the term
&#8220;studying.&#8221;<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; = </span>So
the question isn&#8217;t are students studying enough; rather, it is how do
they define = studying.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>The following chart = illustrates
the difference in how college students and college professors define =
<i><span
style=3D'font-style:italic'>studying</span></i>.<o:p></o:p></span></font
>=
</p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'><span =
style=3D'mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbs
p=
;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span><b><span style=3D'font-weight:bold'><span =
style=3D'mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbs
p=
;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>College
Student<span =
style=3D'mso-tab-count:4'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbs
p= ;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp
;= &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
&= nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&
n=
bsp; </span>College Professor<o:p></o:p></span></b></span></font></p>

<table border=3D1 cellspacing=3D0 cellpadding=3D0 =
style=3D'border-collapse:collapse;
 border:none;mso-border-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-padding-alt:0in =
5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>  <tr>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop style=3D'width:221.4pt;border:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Time: How much have I put =
in?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop style=3D'width:221.4pt;border:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  border-left:none;mso-border-left-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in =
5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Results: What do you know as a =
result
  of the time you put in?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop style=3D'width:221.4pt;border:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in =
5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Identification: Do I know =
&#8220;A&#8221;, &#8220;B&#8221;,
  &#8220;C&#8221;?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop =
style=3D'width:221.4pt;border-top:none;border-left:
  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext .5pt;border-right:solid windowtext =
.5pt;
  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Distinguish-ability: Can you
  distinguish &#8220;A&#8221; from &#8220;B&#8221; from =
&#8220;C&#8221;?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
 <tr>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop style=3D'width:221.4pt;border:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  border-top:none;mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;padding:0in =
5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Definition-oriented: Do I =
<i><span
  style=3D'font-style:italic'>know</span></i> <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>what</span></i>
  &#8220;A&#8221; &#8220;B&#8221; and &#8220;C&#8221; =
mean?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
  <td width=3D295 valign=3Dtop =
style=3D'width:221.4pt;border-top:none;border-left:
  none;border-bottom:solid windowtext .5pt;border-right:solid windowtext =
.5pt;
  mso-border-top-alt:solid windowtext .5pt;mso-border-left-alt:solid =
windowtext .5pt;
  padding:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt'>
  <p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span
  style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Understanding: Can you = <i><span
  style=3D'font-style:italic'>see</span></i> <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>why</span></i>
  &#8220;A&#8221; is &#8220;A&#8221; and &#8220;B&#8221; is =
&#8220;B&#8221; and &#8220;C&#8221; is =
&#8220;C&#8221;?<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>
  </td>
 </tr>
</table>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 color=3Dmaroon face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:maroon'>Again, once these
subtle = differences are clarified and corrected, huge results will
follow.</span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'>Think of it in this
manner.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>Let&#8217;s say I =
am going to give you a physical exercise test one month from now.<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>You must train (i.e. &#8220;study&#8221;) to pass = this
test.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>You decide to run, lift = weights,
and do aerobics for 3hours per day/five days per week.<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>At the end of four weeks, you show up for the =
test.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>You are confident because your =
internal &#8220;cognitive confirmation mechanism&#8221; confirmed that you
were = prepared to pass this test.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp;
</span>However, when = you arrive, as confident as can be, I tell you that I
am giving you a = swimming test. Immediately your mouth drops because you
know that the exercises = did not worked the abilities I was testing for.
You based your exercised on your = own definition of an exercise test.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: = yes">&nbsp;&nbsp; </span>So even though you may be
in the best shape of your life, you = will not do as well on my test.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>You = will receive a lower grade,
not because you didn&#8217;t work hard = &#8220;enough&#8221; or because you
don&#8217;t have the skills; but because you worked different skills = than
I was testing for.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; =
</span><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'>This is easily =
recognized and corrected in physical tests, but many of our students waste
several = semesters before they finally come to this realization with their
academic = tests.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'>Studying and = exercising
are similar in the sense that the degree of satisfaction depends upon the =
goal that the student or exerciser is aiming for.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: = yes">&nbsp; </span>The goal determines the process
necessary to achieve the = goal.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>If the goal is clearly =
understood and students are aware of the process necessary to meet the goal,
then the = student can assess and adjust their learning to ensure that the
goal is = met.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>If the goal and process are = not
clear, then the student will never be able to adjust their learning and will
= have to depend on the &#8220;hope-so&#8221;
method.<o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;
font-family:Garamond;mso-bidi-font-family:Tahoma'>With that said, =
m</span></font><font face=3DGaramond><span style=3D'font-family:Garamond'>y
goal was to = reduce the amount of &#8220;hope-so&#8221; involved by helping
students better = target their studying.<span style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>I have attached = a PowerPoint presentation from a recent
intra-departmental retreat. = <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'>(FYI &#8211; The
presentation centers on a booklet = entitled <i><span
style=3D'font-style:italic'>Learning Reconsidered</span></i>, which =
presents a holistic approach to student learning.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: = yes">&nbsp; </span>Although the booklet is focused
on the entire campus, it = coincided [and almost echoed] what I was already
doing with our students.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; </span>I tweaked my presentation to =
cater to
it.) <o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<h1 align=3Dcenter style=3D'text-align:center'><font size=3D6 =
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt;color:windowtext'>Managed
Learning<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 align=3Dcenter =
style=3D'margin-left:0in;text-align:center;text-indent:0in'><font
size=3D5 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:16.0pt;color:windowtext'>Student
Affairs Director&#8217;s Retreat<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 align=3Dcenter =
style=3D'margin-left:0in;text-align:center;text-indent:0in'><font
size=3D5 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:16.0pt;color:windowtext'>By:
Leon=E1rd G. Geddes, Jr.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 align=3Dcenter =
style=3D'margin-left:0in;text-align:center;text-indent:0in'><font
size=3D5 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:16.0pt;color:windowtext'>August
3, 2004<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt;
color:windowtext'>Introduction<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>The
<i><span = style=3D'font-style:italic'>Learning
Reconsidered</span></i> booklet focused significantly on setting =
expectations, learning processes and learning
outcomes.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>It
poses two key questions = that are pertinent to students&#8217; academic
success: &#8220;<i><span = style=3D'font-style:italic'>Do they know how to
learn?</span></i> <i><span = style=3D'font-style:italic'>Can they manage
their own learning?&#8221;</span></i> (p. =
17)<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>The &#8220;Hope-so&#8221; =
Approach<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo2'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D3
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D3 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext'>Currently, most students use =
the &#8220;hope-so&#8221; approach when it comes to test preparation.<span =
style=3D"mso-spacerun:
yes">&nbsp; </span>They <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>hope</span></i> they understood the correct
textbook material; they <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:italic'>hope</span></i>
they gathered the important material from the classroom discussion; they =
<i><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>hope</span></i> they took good notes;
they = <i><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>hope</span></i> they prepared
enough for the = test; and finally, after they&#8217;ve completed the test,
they <i><span =
style=3D'font-style:
italic'>hope</span></i> (and pray!) that they&#8217;ll get a good =
grade.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Managed
Learning<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>It
states that students = should become &#8220;managers of their own learning
processes and goals&#8221; and = should be able to &#8220;guide their own
learning.&#8221; (pgs. = 10&#8211;11)<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8220;What is needed is a =
<u>new map</u>, one that describes <u>how learning occurs</u>, <u>where it
occurs</u>, = <u>how we can confirm that it is occurring</u>, and <u>what
the outcomes of = learning are</u>.&#8221; (p.
11)<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Managed Learning =
(Defined)<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Managed Learning (ML) is the =
ability to <i><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>identify</span></i> and
<i><span style=3D'font-style:italic'>maximize</span></i> one&#8217;s own
learning = skills, while <i><span
style=3D'font-style:italic'>supervising</span></i> one&#8217;s own =
learning process to achieve desired results.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:
16.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font size=3D1 face=3D"Times New =
Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; =
</span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>It is a response to the current
&#8220;hope-so&#8221; approach espoused by many =
students.</span></font><font color=3Dblack><span =
style=3D'color:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>It
helps transform students = who are in college into college
students.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Why Managed
Learning?<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>The
expected outcome of = collegiate learning is different (more so than
difficult) than that of high school =
learning.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>If
the expected outcome is = different, then the process necessary to achieve
the outcome must be different as = well.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Managed Learning<span =
style=3D'mso-tab-count:1'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; =
</span><o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>Managed Learning helps =
students put their learning on course to meet its
goal.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>It
is not merely new study techniques, tips and strategies; it is a new
approach and paradigm to collegiate learning.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>This approach permeates = every
facet of collegiate learning &#8211; textbook reading, note taking, test =
preparation, &#8220;studying&#8221;, classroom time, professor relations, =
etc.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Managed Learning (Basic =
Assumptions)<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>Learning is a natural =
process.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>Learning is simple (point A =
&#8211; point B).<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>Skill transfer is needed = more
than skill acquisition.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo3'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;color:windowtext'>If
goals are clear, = expectations are leveled, responsibilities are
understood, a learning &#8220;map&#8221; = is created, and confidence is
increased, then students will be more likely to =
succeed.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Managed Learning
Goals<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>The
overall goal is to help = students study more efficiently and
effectively.<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Sub-goals =
are:<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h3 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo4'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D3
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8211;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D3 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext'>To
help students understand = the expected outcome of
college<o:p></o:p></span></font></h3>

<h3 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo4'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D3
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8211;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D3 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext'>To
help students understand = the components involved in achieving this =
outcome<o:p></o:p></span></font></h3>

<h3 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo4'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D3
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8211;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D3 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;color:windowtext'>To
help students learn how = to assess and adjust their learning to meet
goals<o:p></o:p></span></font></h3>

<h1><i><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext;font-style:italic'>What Does It
Take to Manage = Learning?</span></font></i><i><font
color=3Dblack face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-family:Garamond;mso-hansi-font-family:
"Arial Black";color:windowtext;font-style:italic'> = </span></font></i><font
color=3Dblack face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-family:Garamond;mso-hansi-font-family:
"Arial Black";color:windowtext'><o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>A
clear understanding of = professors&#8217;
expectations<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
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style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>An
understanding of, and = distinction between, student and professor =
responsibilities<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>A
knowledge of the key = factors involved in the learning process (as they
relate to collegiate test = preparation)<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><i><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext;font-style:italic'>What Does It
Take to Manage = Learning? </span></font></i><i><font size=3D5
color=3Dblack><span =
style=3D'font-size:16.0pt;color:windowtext;font-style:
italic'>(Cont&#8217;d)<o:p></o:p></span></font></i></h1>

<h2 style=3D'margin-left:24.0pt;text-indent:-24.0pt'><font size=3D4 =
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>4. An awareness of when learning
is occurring<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'margin-left:24.0pt;text-indent:-24.0pt'><font size=3D4 =
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>5. The ability to assess what
has been learned <i><span = style=3D'font-style:italic'>and</span></i>
what still needs to be learned<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'margin-left:24.0pt;text-indent:-24.0pt'><font size=3D4 =
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>6. The ability to adjust
one&#8217;s learning to meet expected = goals<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'margin-left:24.0pt;text-indent:-24.0pt'><font size=3D4 =
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'margin-left:24.0pt;text-indent:-24.0pt'><font size=3D4 =
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Components of Collegiate =
Learning<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Motivation<o:p></o:p></span>
<=
/font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Class =
Participation<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Active =
Reading<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Class =
Notes<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Text =
Notes<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Incremental =
Studying<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Synthesis<o:p></o:p></span><
/=
font></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo1'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font
size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New =
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></font></span></font><![endif]><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack><span
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;color:windowtext'>Understanding<o:p></o:p></sp
a=
n></font></h2>

<h2><font size=3D4 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt; color:windowtext'>(See archway
diagram)<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Benefits of Managed =
Learning<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo5'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Garamond;
color:windowtext;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>&#8226;<font size=3D1 =
face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; =
</span></font></span></font><![endif]><b><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;font-family:
Garamond;mso-hansi-font-family:"Arial =
Black";color:windowtext;font-weight:bold'>Students
will become more intentional, efficient and effective =
learners.<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></h2>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo5'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D4
color=3Dblack face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;font-family:Garamond;
color:windowtext;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold'>&#8226;<font size=3D1 =
face=3D"Times New Roman"><span style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New
Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; =
</span></font></span></font><![endif]><b><font
size=3D4 color=3Dblack face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;font-family:
Garamond;mso-hansi-font-family:"Arial =
Black";color:windowtext;font-weight:bold'>The
managed learning approach can potentially influence student development = in
areas of leadership, general management and personal management because
students will become more purpose-driven, process-oriented and =
results-focused.<span
style=3D"mso-spacerun: yes">&nbsp; =
</span><o:p></o:p></span></font></b></h2>

<h1><font size=3D6 color=3Dblack face=3D"Arial Black"><span =
style=3D'font-size:22.0pt; color:windowtext'>Benefits of Managed =
Learning<o:p></o:p></span></font></h1>

<h2 style=3D'mso-list:l0 level1 lfo6'><![if !supportLists]><font = size=3D5
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style=3D'font-size:16.0pt;font-family:Garamond;
color:windowtext'>&#8226;<font size=3D1 face=3D"Times New Roman"><span =
style=3D'font:7.0pt "Times New Roman"'>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;
</span></font></span></font><![endif]><b><font color=3Dblack =
face=3DGaramond><span
style=3D'font-family:Garamond;mso-hansi-font-family:"Arial =
Black";color:windowtext; font-weight:bold'>Students will learn how to assess
and adjust processes = to meet goals; and will develop a particular
appreciation for the role that efficiency, effectiveness and on-going
assessment play in goal = achievement.</span></font></b><font
color=3Dblack><span style=3D'color:windowtext'> =
<o:p></o:p></span></font></h2>

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<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
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!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Garamond'><![if =
!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
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!supportEmptyParas]>&nbsp;<![endif]><o:p></o:p></span></font></p>

<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
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<p class=3DMsoNormal><font size=3D3 face=3DGaramond><span =
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    =
mso-bidi-font-size:22.0pt;font-family:Arial;color:windowtext;font-weight
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    bold'>Motivation<o:p></o:p></span></font></b></h1>
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<i><span
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to gain
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they
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style=3D"mso-spacerun:
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