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PSYART  September 2004, Week 2

PSYART September 2004, Week 2

Subject:

FW: Winsor McCay

From:

Murray Schwartz <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 12 Sep 2004 13:43:01 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (214 lines)

Dear Psyarters,

Here is a long message from Bill Benzon.  It's worth reading all the way through.

   --Best, Murray

        From: William Benzon [mailto:[log in to unmask]]
        Subject: Winsor McCay

        I¹ve just rented a Winsor McCay DVD from Netflix (Winsor McCay: The Master
        Edition) and I am stunned.  The hardcore PSYART stuff doesn't come 'till
        midway through this note.

        Winsor McCay is a cartoonist and animator who worked in the United States at
        the end of the 19th century and in the first quarter of the 20th. I¹ve known
        about him for a number of years, seen pages and panels from his comic strips
        in various places (but I¹ve never looked at any of the complete books of
        such) and have known about his pioneering animation, ³Gertie the Dinosaur,²
        for awhile as well.  Well, now I¹ve seen ³Gertie² and  the rest and, as I¹ve
        said, I¹m stunned.  In terms of drawing quality and movement quality, this
        is the finest work we have until we reach the mature Disney of the feature
        length films in the late 1930s. OTOH, there¹s very little in the way of a
        story in any of these films.

        This DVD consists of the following films plus a few special features:

        Little Nemo (1911, complete)
        How a Mosquito Operates (complete)
        Gertie the Dinosaur (complete)
        Sinking of the Lusitania (complete)
        The Centaurs (fragments)
        Gertie on Tour (fragments)
        Flip¹s Circus (fragments)
        Bug Vaudville (complete)
        The Pet (1921, complete)
        The Flying House (complete)

        Plus: an interview with a man who worked with McCay; a bunch of photos,
        individual images, and panels and pages from the strips; and verbal
        commentary by John Canemaker on the films.

        Now, McCay didn¹t invent film animation, there were others a bit before him
        ­ not to mention flip books and various mechanical devices that graced
        Victorian parlors and arcades ­ but he was one of the earliest and claims to
        have invented, e.g. the practice of cycling through a set of frames to
        create repetitive motion. Canemaker credits him with being the originator of
        ³personality² animation (the mosquito in ³How a Mosquito Operates²), that
        is, animating a character so that its movements suggest an identifiable
        personality.

        One thing that interests me about these films is that there is a
        self-consciousness about the medium from the very beginning. In both ³Nemo²
        and ³Gertie² we see live action segments where McCay is drawing images on a
        large vertically-mounted sketchpad.  Within the animated portion of ³Nemo²
        there is an astonishing sequence where:

        1)    Nemo draws the image of his girlfriend,
        2)    presents her with a rose (that just appeared to the left),
        3)    a large dragon head moves in from the left with its mouth open,
        4)    Nemo and friend sit down side-by side on a seat in the mouth (as
        though this were a seat in an amusement park ride)
        5)    The dragon continues moving in from the left and then makes a
        right-angle turn and heads off into the distance away from the audience.

        That last shot shows astonishing control of perspective drawing and fluid
        movement.

        Why does this self-consciousness interest me?  Well, when I was growing up
        in the 50s and 60s, one of the standard segments on
        Walt Disney¹s TV show was a behind-the-scenes look at how animation was
        done.  I also saw such segments on Walter Lanz¹s Woody Woodpecker show.  It
        was part of the deal.  Now I know that in some measure it was part of the
        deal from the beginning.

        Equally interesting is the fact that both ³Little Nemo² and ³Gertie the
        Dinosaur² are staged in a way that derives from McCay¹s vaudeville act.  A
        few years before his first animation McCay started appearing on Broadway as
        a chalk artist.  He¹d make rapid sketches on a blackboard.  Presumably the
        fun of the act was in the speed and fluidity of the drawing and the ability
        to make remarkable transformations in appearance with relatively little
        drawing effort.  In his first act McCay would sketch the heads of two
        characters, a male and a female, and then age them by doing this and that to
        the images.  Thus the act was a sort of
        animation-drawing-before-your-very-eyes.

        Thus both ³Nemo² and ³Gertie² involve a live action frame as a setting for
        the focal animation.  In both cases the frame is the same, McCay bets some
        friends that he can bring still characters to life by making a prodigious
        number of drawings.  In ³Gertie² the first half of the frame is set in NYC¹s
        Museum of Natural History where we see a dinosaur skeleton. THAT¹s what
        MacCay says he¹s going to bring to life.

        In the case of ³Gertie² the animated portion of the film was, in fact,
        created for use in the vaudeville act.  MacCay, whip in hand, would be
        standing next to the screen as the film was projected.  At various points he
        would utter a command, crack the whip, and Gertie would respond, sometimes
        immediately, sometimes not (Gertie had a personality).  At the end of his
        act McCay would walk off the stage and then reappear standing on Gertie¹s
        head. In the full movie McCay dispenses with his whip.  Instead of him
        giving commands to Gertie we see title frames with the appropriate commands.

        It seems pretty clear to me that what ³Gertie the Dinosaur² is ³about² is
        the virtuoso display of McCay¹s skills in creating (the illusion of) life
        and personality.  That in itself is so impressive, wondrous, and difficult
        that story-telling is not a serious consideration.  His last two films, ³The
        Pet² and ³The Flying House,² have a bit more of a plot.  But not much.

        First, both of these films are framed as well.  In this case, the frame is
        that of a dream (a frame McCay knew well from his comic strips).  We see a
        couple in bed at the beginning, talking about dreams, and we return to them
        at the very end.  But the bulk of the film is the dream itself, the
        husband¹s dream in the case of ³The Pet² and the wife¹s dream in the case of
        ³The Flying House.²  In ³The Pet² the wife has acquired a dog-like pet that
        just grows and grows and grows until, at the end, it¹s walking through the
        city, towering over buildings, eating smaller ones at a single gulp, and so
        forth, until it is finally destroyed by bombs.  That ends the dream; we then
        get a few closing seconds with the couple in bed and that¹s it.

        ³The Flying House² opens the same way.  But this time we have a wife¹s dream
        about her husband.  The mortgage is due, the husband can¹t pay, so he¹s
        busing transforming the house into a flying house.  Once the engine,
        propellor, and wings are installed, the house takes off and flies around.
        After awhile they fly the house to the moon and we get shots of the earth,
        moon, and stars.  Some giant in space swats them with a fly-swatter as
        they¹re on the moon, so they fly back into space and are flying around.
        When they run out gas.  Meanwhile back on earth some bald scientist type
        (with glasses and a full beard) is about to demonstrate this giant canon
        he¹s made to sent a rocket to the moon at 10,000 miles per second.  He
        fire¹s the canon, the rocket hits and destroys the house, and husband and
        wife come tumbling back to earth and land ­  would you know? ­ right back in
        bed.  She wakes up with a start and realizes that it was only a dream. End
        of movie.

        So, we¹ve got two movies framed as a dream by one party of a married couple
        we see in bed at the beginning and the end of the movie. Both dreams end in
        an explosion.  Now let¹s look at McCay¹s second movie ³How a Mosquito
        Operates.²  The premise is simple, a man goes to sleep and a mosquito lands
        on his head a proceeds to suck blood from the man¹s rather large nose (think
        of a caricature of WC Fields, whom McCay had met in vaudeville though I have
        no idea whether he had Fields in mind when creating this character), scalp,
        and neck.  As the mosquito draws blood, his belly becomes larger and larger
        (I bet you can guess how this one¹s going to end).  Before beginning to draw
        blood the mosquito makes a big deal of sharpening his proboscis on a grind
        stone; he also doffs his top-hat to the audience at various points.  He
        doesn¹t draw all the blood in one penetration; there are several.  And he
        doesn¹t just stick it in the leave it there while sucking the blood out.
        No, he pokes his proboscis in and out, in and out, several times in each
        penetration.  During one interval the mosquito makes a big deal of doing a
        head-stand on the man¹s up-turned nose ­ which he had already penetrated for
        blood two or three times.  He goes for one final drink from the man¹s nose,
        overdoes it, and explodes, body parts flying all over the place.  The man
        awakens and the film ends.

        It seems to me that all this in-and-out exploding dreaming has unmistakable
        sexual undertones.  These films were made during the 19-teens and early 20s,
        and the bald, bearded, spectacled rocket scientist in ³The Flying House²
        looks more or less like Freud (though the beard is a bit too long and full).
        Remarkable stuff.

        But perhaps the most remarkable of these films is ³The Sinking of the
        Lusitania.²  It¹s not a vaudeville act, not an experiment in artificial
        life, not a dream.  Rather, it¹s a more-or-less realistic depiction of a
        real event; and it¹s also war propaganda.

        Technically, this was the first of McCay¹s films to use cel-animation. The
        first three films had been drawn on rice paper which was then pasted to thin
        boards for shooting. The backgrounds had to be re-drawn for each frame. In
        ³Lusitania² background and foreground images are drawn on separate acetates.

        The animation consists of a variety of shots, long-distance shots of the
        Lusitania and of the submarine, under-water shots, close-ups of people in
        the water, middle-distance shots of life boats being lowered into the water.
        That last shot shows a woman attempting to hold her infant up out of the
        water and she sinks below the surface.  There are two explosions in the
        film, which McCay does brilliantly.  Perhaps his most elegant animation is
        that of the smoke trailing from the ship¹s stacks; the movement is
        exquisitely sensual.

        The whole film, however, is marred by the mid-film inclusion of still
        photographs of a hand-full of notables who died in the sinking.  This may
        have increased the propaganda value of the film, but it wrecks the dramatic
        motion.  I say this not so much in criticism, but by way of observing that
        McCay had no models for what he was doing and so had to figure it out for
        himself.  Some things work, some don¹t; but you can¹t tell until you try.
        This is the first time anyone had tried THAT.

        * * * * *

        Why didn¹t McCay¹s contemporaries and successors attempt to emulate his
        work? Why is he the only one to have produced work of that quality?  We
        don¹t really know, of course, but I¹d think McCay¹s virtuosity is a
        significant part of the reason.  We was a superb draftsman; he could draw
        well and he could draw quickly.  I would have been very difficult to produce
        work of that quality on a one-a-week basis, which was the schedule of the
        commercial animation houses.

        But I think there¹s more to it than that.  He thought of his work as Art.
        Other animators did not. It wasn¹t simply that they didn¹t have time to do
        Art; they weren¹t interested in doing Art no matter how much time they had.
        In a way, I almost think he was a 19th-century man who just happened to do
        his most innovative work in the first quarter of the 20th century.  He was
        working at the end of an old cultural era while his fellow animators were
        working at the beginning of a one.  It isn¹t until Disney¹s maturity (not
        the early stuff) that we have comparable draftsmanship and fluidity.  And,
        however conscious Disney was of working in a new and important medium, he
        didn¹t think of himself as being in the Art business.  He was, at best,
        ambivalent about the cachet he and his work had in high-art circles and that
        cachet pretty much evaporated after WWII.

        My sense is that, if you want to find the aesthetic spirit of McCay in
        animation, you¹ve got to go to Japan.  But that¹s another story, etc.


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February 2010, Week 1
January 2010, Week 5
January 2010, Week 4
January 2010, Week 3
January 2010, Week 2
January 2010, Week 1
December 2009, Week 5
December 2009, Week 4
December 2009, Week 3
December 2009, Week 2
December 2009, Week 1
November 2009, Week 5
November 2009, Week 4
November 2009, Week 3
November 2009, Week 2
November 2009, Week 1
October 2009, Week 5
October 2009, Week 4
October 2009, Week 3
October 2009, Week 2
October 2009, Week 1
September 2009, Week 5
September 2009, Week 4
September 2009, Week 3
September 2009, Week 2
September 2009, Week 1
August 2009, Week 5
August 2009, Week 4
August 2009, Week 3
August 2009, Week 2
August 2009, Week 1
July 2009, Week 5
July 2009, Week 4
July 2009, Week 3
July 2009, Week 2
July 2009, Week 1
June 2009, Week 5
June 2009, Week 4
June 2009, Week 3
June 2009, Week 2
June 2009, Week 1
May 2009, Week 5
May 2009, Week 4
May 2009, Week 3
May 2009, Week 2
May 2009, Week 1
April 2009, Week 5
April 2009, Week 4
April 2009, Week 3
April 2009, Week 2
April 2009, Week 1
March 2009, Week 5
March 2009, Week 4
March 2009, Week 3
March 2009, Week 2
March 2009, Week 1
February 2009, Week 4
February 2009, Week 3
February 2009, Week 2
February 2009, Week 1
January 2009, Week 5
January 2009, Week 4
January 2009, Week 3
January 2009, Week 2
January 2009, Week 1
December 2008, Week 5
December 2008, Week 4
December 2008, Week 3
December 2008, Week 2
December 2008, Week 1
November 2008, Week 5
November 2008, Week 4
November 2008, Week 3
November 2008, Week 2
November 2008, Week 1
October 2008, Week 5
October 2008, Week 4
October 2008, Week 3
October 2008, Week 2
October 2008, Week 1
September 2008, Week 5
September 2008, Week 4
September 2008, Week 3
September 2008, Week 2
September 2008, Week 1
August 2008, Week 5
August 2008, Week 4
August 2008, Week 3
August 2008, Week 2
August 2008, Week 1
July 2008, Week 5
July 2008, Week 4
July 2008, Week 3
July 2008, Week 2
July 2008, Week 1
June 2008, Week 5
June 2008, Week 4
June 2008, Week 3
June 2008, Week 2
June 2008, Week 1
May 2008, Week 5
May 2008, Week 4
May 2008, Week 3
May 2008, Week 2
May 2008, Week 1
April 2008, Week 5
April 2008, Week 4
April 2008, Week 3
April 2008, Week 2
April 2008, Week 1
March 2008, Week 5
March 2008, Week 4
March 2008, Week 3
March 2008, Week 2
March 2008, Week 1
February 2008, Week 5
February 2008, Week 4
February 2008, Week 3
February 2008, Week 2
February 2008, Week 1
January 2008, Week 5
January 2008, Week 4
January 2008, Week 3
January 2008, Week 2
January 2008, Week 1
December 2007, Week 5
December 2007, Week 4
December 2007, Week 3
December 2007, Week 2
December 2007, Week 1
November 2007, Week 5
November 2007, Week 4
November 2007, Week 3
November 2007, Week 2
November 2007, Week 1
October 2007, Week 5
October 2007, Week 4
October 2007, Week 3
October 2007, Week 2
October 2007, Week 1
September 2007, Week 5
September 2007, Week 4
September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 4

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