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PSYART  September 2004, Week 2

PSYART September 2004, Week 2

Subject:

[Fwd: What is War?]

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 14 Sep 2004 17:36:49 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (140 lines)

-------- Original Message --------
From:   Library of Social Science <[log in to unmask]>
Subject:        What is War?
To:     <[log in to unmask]>




WHAT IS WAR?

In our conventional way of thinking, war is driven by motives like the
wish for conquest or territorial expansion, the defense of boundaries,
and the pursuit of national interests. Standard historical accounts of
the Second World War state that Hitler sought "living space," that he
dreamt of building a "vast German Empire sprawling across Central and
Eastern Europe," that his aim was to "wage a war of conquest against the
Soviet Union" and to make Germany the "most powerful state in all of
Europe." But careful study of Hitler's speeches and writings show a
startling pattern that belies these interpretations: War was prompted by
Hitler's deeper wish for the annihilation of himself, his nation and the
German people.

**
Hitler stated: "We do not want to have any other God, only Germany." He
glorified warfare as an activity that required his soldiers and people
to sacrifice their lives in the name of the object that they worshipped
in common--their own nation. Writing about the First World War (in which
two million German soldiers were killed), Hitler said: "When in the long
war years Death snatched so many dear comrades and friends from our
ranks, it would have seemed to me almost a sin to complain-after all,
were they not dying for Germany?"

Hitler asserted that "Any man who loves his people proves it solely by
the sacrifices which he is prepared to make for it." He stated that
National Socialism meant acting with a "boundless and all embracing love
for the people, and if necessary to die for it." He proclaimed that
giving one's life for the community constituted the "crown of all
sacrifice."

Tens of thousands of books have been written about Nazism, the Holocaust
and World War II. However few scholars take the trouble to listen
carefully to Hitler's words, which reveal what he thought he was doing.
Here is what Hitler said on September 1, 1939, speaking before the
Reichstag as German planes and troops crossed the Polish borders in a
devastating Blitzkrieg:

     As a National Socialist and a German soldier, I enter upon this
     fight with a stout heart! My whole life has been but one continuous
     struggle for my people, and that whole struggle has been inspired by
     one single conviction: Faith in my people! I ask of every German
     what I myself am prepared to do at any moment: to be ready to lay
     down his life for his people and for his country. If anyone thinks
     that he can evade this national duty directly or indirectly, he will
     perish.

In this passage, Hitler articulates his thinking about the war that is
about to begin and provides a preview of what is going to occur. He asks
every German to do what he was prepared to do (and eventually did).
Hitler goes on to say that if anyone thinks he can "evade this national
duty"--the obligation to lay down one's life for his people and
country--he will "perish." In short, Hitler stated: Either die for
Germany, or Germany will kill you.

********
------------------------------------------------------------------------
To read Richard Koenigsberg's papers listed below,

PLEASE CLICK HERE
<http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=8ohup7n6.0.d75zm7n6.85y8w8n6.1&p=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.earthlink.net%2F%7Elibraryofsocialscience%2F>

     * AS THE SOLDIER DIES, SO DOES THE NATION COME ALIVE: The
       Sacrificial Meaning of Warfare
     * DYING FOR ONE'S COUNTRY: The Logic of War and Genocide
     * THE LOGIC OF THE HOLOCAUST: Why the Nazi's Killed the Jews
     * THE SACRIFICIAL MEANING OF THE HOLOCAUST
     * AZTEC WARFARE, WESTERN WARFARE: The Soldier as Sacrificial Victim

------------------------------------------------------------------------

As the Second World War progressed with the invasion of Russia, Joseph
Goebbels, Hitler's Minister of Propaganda, noted with satisfaction that
"the German soldiers go into battle with devotion, like congregations
going into service." General von Runstedt admonished the soldiers of
World War II to emulate the example of their brothers in the First World
War: "The heroic death of a German soldier is not something to be
forgotten. Instead, it should inspire everyone who remembers it to die
in the same way, to be as strong, unswerving and obedient, to go happily
and as a matter of course to his death."

Hitler declared war on September 1, 1939 by asking every German to lay
down his life for his people. World War II was the vehicle through which
Hitler acted out this sacrificial fantasy. While the history books
observe and portray the scene as quintessentially aggressive, beneath
the will to power was the will toward abject submission. Hitler felt
compelled to-and clearly did--ask his own people to submit absolutely to
the nation-state; to die for Germany.

War represents an activity in which the self is cast off in the name of
the collective. When Hitler proclaimed to the German people, "You are
nothing, your nation is everything," he meant it. Nazism sought to
obliterate individuality. As the nation was exalted to become
"everything," so were human beings degraded to become "nothing."

To bring Hitler's ideology to fruition, everyone would have to become a
sacrificial victim. No one was exempt. Toward the end when the war was
lost, Germany could have surrendered; many German lives could have been
saved. But Hitler could not bear the idea that some might escape the
sacrificial obligation. He refused to abandon his dream. His fantasy
required total participation. The sacrificial offering had to be complete.

Stephen Fritz, after studying the action on the Eastern front, noted
that German soldiers suspected of desertion were often executed and left
dangling from trees or poles with placards around their necks.
Sixteen-year-old Hans-Rudolf Vilter never forgot the deserters hanging
on lampposts and trees in Berlin in 1945, marked with the sign
proclaiming, "I hang here because I am too cowardly to defend my
fatherland."

Hitler refused to allow his people to acknowledge that the war was lost.
He continued to require that they "lay down their lives," thereby
fulfilling his prophecy that one would either die in the process of
fighting for Germany, or perish. One soldier recalled with bitterness
the fall of 1944, when armed German officers gave his unit no choice but
to attack enemy lines. The other option was clear: be shot by your own
leaders.

Units established special formations whose instructions were to "make
immediate use of their weapons in order to enforce obedience and
discipline." As Helmut Altner wrote caustically, the soldiers' situation
was devilishly simple: "There were only two possibilities: Death by a
bullet from the enemy or by the 'thugs' of the SS." Thus did Hitler
fulfill his dream of war and enforce the sacrificial fantasy: Either die
for Germany, or be killed.

------------------------------------------------------------------------
E-mail: [log in to unmask]
<mailto:[log in to unmask]>
Phone: 718-393-1081
Web: http://home.earthlink.net/~libraryofsocialscience/
<http://rs6.net/tn.jsp?t=8ohup7n6.0.d75zm7n6.85y8w8n6.1&p=http%3A%2F%2Fhome.earthlink.net%2F%7Elibraryofsocialscience%2F>

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December 1998, Week 5
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