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Before computers.... we had punch cards... 'elite target analysis' as
performed in 1954!
> Preface to the first publicly available edition of the Manual of Elite
> Target Analysis.
> In 1953-4, Alfred de Grazia, who was then Executive Officer of the
> Committee for Research in Social Science and Associate Professor of
> Political Science at Stanford University, submitted a proposal to the
> Department of State to write a manual that would help train federal
> employees assigned to culturally diverse countries around the world.
> It was a period of great and expanding scope of U.S. operations
> Upon its acceptance, he invited two colleagues from the fields of
> sociology and communication studies to collaborate. By the year 2000,
> both colleagues, distinguished leaders in their fields, were long
> deceased; yet the manual of Elite Target Analysis had not been
> published, beyond the copies used internally by government officials.
> There was never any secrecy about the activity or the manual. And it
> is hardly superseded in theory and practice, although it was prepared
> in the age of the hand-punched card or machine-sorted Hollarith card,
> and it was a generation preceding the sophisticated generally
> available computer network. Despite the new technology that would be
> applied, strictly comparable pragmatic works seem not yet to be
The whole manual...
[Discovered by Jeff Ubois]
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