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Subject:

Re: help with a topic for class

From:

Eldon McMurray <[log in to unmask]>

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Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 20 Feb 2005 20:49:47 -0700

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Sorry, I forgot use an attachment.




METACOGNITIVE APPLICATION PROCESS:
A Framework for Teaching Effective Thinking Skills in FYE Courses




By Eldon McMurray
Director
Center for Faculty Excellence
Utah Valley State College
800 West University Parkway
Orem, UT
801-863-8550

Marni Sanft
Assistant Professor
Critical Thinking and Reading Strategies
Utah Valley State College
800 West University Parkway
Orem, UT
801-863-6273

A paper presented at the
College Survival
Becoming a Master Student
National Conference







February 16-18, 2005


Student Success
        First-Year Experience initiatives on campuses across the country aim to recognize and address the needs of students making the transition to college.  In recent years educators have come to realize that consideration of non-intellective factors must accompany traditional assessment methods.
        Current research has concluded that measures of self-awareness, self-efficacy, and emotional intelligence factors related to human performance may be more predictive of academic achievement, career success and leadership ability than IQ tests and other measures of scholastic aptitude and achievement (Nelson and Low, 2003; Gardner, 1983,1993,1997; Stemberg, 1985,1995; Goleman, 1995,1997; Dryden and Vos, 1994; Astin and Associates, 1993; Weisenger, 1985, 1998; Cooper and Saway, 1997; and Epstein, 1998).  These findings emphasize the necessity of including self-awareness as part of programs designed to improve student achievement and academic success.
        Recent national surveys of first-year college students indicate that emotional self-awareness and physical health declined by the end of their first year in college and feelings of depression and being overwhelmed increased (Bartlett 2002).  Primary reasons for student attrition may not be academic.  Personal factors such as loneliness, boredom, lack of purpose, and feelings of inadequacy negatively impact achievement and lead to attrition.  Although the primary focus of education is academic performance, evidence suggests that schools and colleges must also emphasize the learning and development of self-awareness and emotional intelligence.  For these reasons, Utah Valley State College implemented a self-awareness based Student Success program to help students identify, learn, and practice behaviors important to academic success in the first semester of college.

Metacognition and Self-efficacy
While self-awareness encompasses countless aspects of a first-year student's life, this paper focuses on developing an awareness of and confidence in one's own thinking skills.  According to Socrates, knowledge was to be sought within the mind and brought to birth by questioning. He emphasizes the importance of reflection or the discovery of what is within. In 1971, Flavel introduced the term metacognition to describe the kind of reflective thinking Socrates described.  Metacognition involves an awareness of one's thinking and learning and the ability to monitor, evaluate, and regulate the learning process.  Students who develop metacognitive control in terms of self, task, and strategy awareness increase their ability to learn and build academic self-efficacy.  Self-efficacy differs from self-concept and self-esteem. Self-concept implies a collection of beliefs about one's self that are arranged in a hierarchical structure and directly influence behavior (Marsh, 1990). Self-esteem is one's overall feeling of worth and value or the evaluation one maintains about self (Coppersmith, 1967). Self-concept involves an external comparison of self to others, while self-esteem is an internal comparison of a "real" to an "ideal" (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991). Self-efficacy, in contrast, involves a judgment of one's capabilities without comparing them to others or to an ideal.  Students with a strong sense of self-efficacy are more likely to succeed in academic pursuits.

Introducing Critical Thinking
At Utah Valley State College, instructors developed and implemented a critical thinking framework to help students develop metacognitive control and develop other necessary reasoning skills such as critical analysis, reasoned synthesis, and creative application or transfer. By asking a series of simple questions students link the aspects of critical thinking to their use of the learning styles.  Together these skills help students to better understand their academic strengths and apply appropriate cognitive strategies to improve their thinking and learning.  This critical thinking framework has been incorporated in the 11th Edition of Becoming a Master Student as the Metacognitive Application Process (MAP).  This approach encourages students to "think" and "rethink" the various topics and concepts introduced in a first-year experience course.  As a result, students process information using a variety of learning styles and develop higher-level thinking skills.  This allows them to capitalize on personal strengths while improving or allowing for weaknesses.


Asking Simple Questions
Metacognitive students learn both vertical and lateral thinking by deliberately posing thoughtful, yet simple questions about their thinking, monitoring their performance, and examining their effectiveness.  The MAP incorporates various aspect of critical thinking by simply asking why, what, how, and what if.
As discussed earlier, metacognitive control is the ability to consciously monitor thinking and establish purposeful reasons for learning.   In simpler terms, this aspect of critical thinking relates to the question "why?"  Asking why helps students identify their motivation for learning and evaluate the process.
•       Why do I need to take Student Success?
•       Why should I study in the library?
Critical analysis is the ability to identify key parts, gather necessary information, and recognize the importance of essential ideas. When students ask what, they begin to comprehend ideas and actively seek after additional information.
•       What do I need to know to be a better student?
•       What is going to be on the test?
Reasoned synthesis is the ability to combine essential ideas to create meaningful applications of knowledge. Asking how helps students begin to conceive meaningful applications of knowledge.  They demonstrate their understanding by utilizing the ideas and strategies they have learned to accomplish a given task.
•       How do I implement effective reading strategies?
•       How do I study for the test?
Creative application or transfer is the ability to conceive alternative applications for concepts or models and choose the most effective strategies for specific situations.  What if questions help students generate creative possibilities or applications of knowledge and choose the most effective strategy for the situation.  The key to asking effective what if questions is to deliberately explore different points of view.  According to Debono (1998), lateral thinking is generative. With lateral thinking one generates as many alternative approaches as one can in the hope of finding an even better approach.
•       What if I take notes or make study cards?
•       What if I study with a group?

Kolb's Learning Styles
These simple questions correlate with predominant learning styles.  According to David Kolb's and Bernice McCarthy's research, students generally perceive and process information in one of four ways, including feeling, watching, thinking, and doing.  Combining these modes of learning translates into learning practices or characteristics that strongly correlate with the aspects of self-awareness and critical thinking introduced above.
David A. Kolb (with Roger Fry) created an experiential learning cycle with four basic elements: concrete experience, observation and reflection, the formation of abstract concepts and testing in new situations.  Kolb and Fry (1975) argue that the learning cycle can begin at any one of the four points and that it should really be approached as a continuous spiral.

Students who learn using a combination of feeling and watching, or Mode 1, will also tend to grasp the metacognitive aspects of learning.  Students who prefer this learning mode want to understand why a topic is relevant in their lives and they learn by reflecting on their own experiences.
Students who prefer Mode 2 learn by watching and thinking.  They have natural analytical skills, which help them to identify, define, and understand theories, and organize information.  They are primarily interested in gathering information and identifying what they need to know. Developing this ability helps students identify the learning task by answering the important metacognitive question, "What do I know?" Becoming aware of the learning task by first identifying what they know leads to the resulting awareness of the answer to an even more important question, "What don't I know?"
Mode 3 combines thinking and doing.  In this learning mode, students want to know how things work.  They demonstrate their ability to synthesize by translating understanding into an actual application.  They prefer learning by working through problems, labs, or application assignments.  Developing this type of thinking requires students to become skilled with new strategies to apply to learning tasks. This strategy awareness helps each student choose the most effective learning tools for each situation.
Students who are considered Mode 4 learn by doing and feeling and want to apply what they are learning.  They enjoy carrying out plans and facing new challenges.  These students transfer ideas by readily identifying alternative applications for what they have learned.  They demonstrate creative thinking by asking "what if?" in any learning situation. Developing these types of skills engages students in the process of lateral thinking.
While significant learning experiences most often happen within a student's preferred learning style, with explicit thinking instruction and modeling, a student can develop the cognitive strengths associated with each mode or style.  The MAP facilitates this multi-faceted approach to learning and thinking by encouraging students to use all aspects of critical thinking repeatedly.

Student Responses
When students see how this critical thinking model helps them to surpass the limits of their own preferred learning style, they value the metacognitive control that this model gives them over their own learning.  Michelle describes how asking these simple questions enriched her understanding of anatomy.
I have also improved the way I study and the way I process information using the critical thinking framework.  By considering all aspects of a subject other than the "what," I further understand the information I am trying to process.  I found it interesting that Mode 2 is the "what" group, because when I'm learning a subject that's all I'm worried about.  Just tell me what it is you want me to know and I'll learn it.  I'll memorize the "what" and I never worry about the "why," the "how," or the "what if."  Just in these last couple of weeks, however, as I've been preparing for an Anatomy exam, I have come to realize the importance of incorporating those other questions into my studies.  Sure I can know "what" the nervous system is, but until I know "why" it's doing what it's doing, and "how" it's doing it, I don't fully understand the nervous system.  All I have are a bunch of facts about it that I can't really put to use.  The "what if" further helps me because from it, I can form possible test questions.
As Michelle continues to develop as a "what if?" thinker, she will realize more sophisticated alternatives. For instance, continuing with her explanation of the nervous system, she could posit, What if the person wasn't eating well, or sleeping well? By considering these alternative factors, Michelle's ability to discriminate between levels of knowledge improves. Consequently, her academic self-efficacy is strengthened and her self-confidence as a thinker is refined.
In the next example, Randi begins to realize the impact that enhanced self-awareness and basic critical thinking can have on her personal decision making process.
The critical thinking framework is so simple, yet so effective.  You just need to understand the basic concepts and then apply them the best possible way for you.  It just gives you a basic outline and then you are free to apply it to any part of your life that you want.  It can be anything from understanding a school concept, helping you decide your future, or reaching your school goals.
Randi's understanding of this framework as an "easy to use" thinking tool empowers her to clarify her perceptions and quickly think through the decision she is planning while at the same time gathering a rich variety of information upon which to base a carefully reasoned, well considered conclusion.
The MAP gives students a context for understanding their learning style and more importantly a tool for engaging higher level thinking skills.  As Randi points out the model is uniquely flexible and suited to a variety of thinking applications. The simplicity of applying this process makes Michelle and Randi better thinkers on several levels without understanding the complex terms used to describe the levels of knowledge involved in the process.

The MAP and Bloom's Taxonomy
Many educators embrace Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy of Knowledge as a systematic approach to developing higher level thinking skills.  The broad alignment of the four modes of Kolb's learning styles, the simple questions, and the four basic aspects of critical thinking in the framework are further strengthened if Bloom's levels of knowledge and stages of cognitive development are considered (Table 1). The questions and skills associated with this framework incorporate the various levels of Bloom's knowledge management system to enhance the accuracy, quality, and creativity of students' thinking.

Figure 1


Knowledge relates to the lower level aspects of Why and What because it involves simple recognition and recall.  At this level, a student has a basic awareness of a subject matter and begins to recognize its relative importance: Why do I need to learn this?  Furthermore, the student also begins to gather basic information: What do I need to know?
At the Comprehension level, students ask What to build on the basic knowledge they have gained. They understand what they are reading, hearing or seeing by answering questions like "what does this mean?"  On a basic level, they know what they know, or they are aware of the first part of the learning task. At this level, students cannot fully explain a concept to someone else because they do not know what they do not yet understand.
Analysis is the second aspect of What in the framework. It means taking something apart and understanding its component parts and their inter-relationships. At this level, students can answer questions like "what is the most important point the author is making?"  Students also begin to differentiate between what they know and what they don't know.
Synthesis relates to How in the framework.   It occurs on the basis of analysis, but is a higher stage in that it involves the creation of something that did not exist before. It involves being able to create something new from disparate parts, like new knowledge structure in the student's brain. If students take the analysis and decide how to use a strategy to learn and/or remember what they don't know they are synthesizing a strategic solution to a learning problem.
Application involves the ability to demonstrate how a concept is used.  This goes beyond being able to recite a definition.  When students respond to a real or hypothetical situation, they use their knowledge to meet a specific objective.  For example, a student may need to know how to use the quadratic equation.
        What if employs creativity.  Though Bloom did not include it in his model, it is essential for generating the possibilities necessary for synthesis and application to develop.  Judgement is the ability to assess the strengths and weaknesses of ideas, to compare and contrast different ideas, and to draw an independent conclusion.  Without this level of reasoning, students would have to accept the opinions of others.
Evaluation is the highest stage of cognitive development in Bloom's taxonomy. In this model, it suggests on-going evaluation of the learning process.  It involves asking questions like "why did I not get the desired result?"  When students consider Why at this level, they begin to taking greater control of their learning and begin the process all over again.
Bloom argues that if college classes do not call for undergraduates to develop the higher-level cognitive skills, then the student has not received a higher education. This framework is the beginning of what students need from an effective FYE course.

Teaching with the MAP
        At Utah Valley State College, where the process was developed and refined, a variety of situational approaches are used to teach students to begin to be more independent thinkers using the critical thinking framework.

Think Aloud
Utilizing the "think aloud" instructional technique, FYE instructors can teach students to process high quality perceptions in any given learning experience by answering the questions related to all of the styles of learning. Students are taught to use the MAP as a framework through explicit modeling in think-aloud.  Consequently, they learn to use not only their learning style, but strengths of all of the learning styles. The successful learning experiences result in a positive impact on the level of academic self-efficacy of the FYE students.

Student Projects and Assignments
        The MAP can be used to organize a variety of projects or assignments to encourage students to process topics on various levels.  The following is an example of how the questions can be used to structure an assignment for students to learn about various campus resources and report to the class.
WHY?    Why is it important to connect with this department?
WHAT?   What does this department have to offer?
HOW?    How can you utilize these resources?
WHAT IF?        What if your roommate or a classmate needs this service?

Student Journals
Students are also given journaling exercises to internalize the MAP for all of their problem solving thinking and learning tasks.  Writing in journals is a powerful way to metacognitively apply and process learning experiences. Ira Progoff (1980) has gone in a different direction with his development of the journal as a tool for what he calls "process meditation." The MAP questions become an inner dialogue that allows writers to experience themselves from many different perspectives. The heart of reflection is the ability to question, analyze, compare, contrast, and organize thoughts. Students who have a grasp of the MAP questions and know that they relate to critical thinking will be much better equipped to acquire natural knowledge in many subjects, as well as felt meanings. They will appreciate the full benefit of the MAP when they see it can be applied in every  discipline in the college student's experience.

Curriculum Development and the MAP
In addition to using the MAP as a teaching model, the College Success faculty at Utah Valley State College uses it as a basic framework for course design and instructor training.  Because this framework aligns with both learning style theory and Bloom's taxonomy, it provides a solid foundation for developing and evaluating curriculum.  Furthermore, it incorporates critical thinking principles as the basis for the entire course.   Hunter Boylan (2002) recommends this type of approach in What Works: Research-based Best Practices in Developmental Education.  He claims, "Critical thinking is best taught in a systematic manner that actually models the concept of logical structuring.  It is important, therefore, to integrate critical thinking concepts and applications into a course as it is being designed" (p.96).  The MAP provides a systematic approach for teaching critical thinking and designing a course based on critical thinking.
The framework helps to define the scope and sequence of an FYE course by aligning course content with clear objectives.  First, faculty must identify and clarify course objectives (Why) based on research.  Next, faculty can review course topics (What) and teaching methods (How), and they can also explore alternative topics and/or teaching methods (What if).  Table 2 provides a simplified example of how the framework is used as an overview of Student Success at Utah Valley State College.  The MAP provides the framework for course design, and the course overview facilitates more effective instructor and peer mentor training by succinctly illustrating the essential elements of the course.

Table 2.
Objectives of Student Success   Why? (Philosophy)       What?
(Course topics) How?
(Required Assignments)  What if?
(Best Practices)
Introduce self-awareness tools  Student Success can help students develop higher-level thinking and learning skills through self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-instruction.      Learning Styles
Color Code
Discovery Wheel LS Inventory
Color Code profile
Pre- and Post- Discovery Wheel  Group presentations
Develop effective thinking and study skills     Student Success must help students apply successful study strategies because research shows poor time management and lack of academic skills are the leading cause of first semester failure    Time Management
Critical Thinking
Reading
Note Taking
Memory
Test Taking     Calendar/schedule
Reasoning Model
4R's
Cornell notes
PEG and Loci
Test Project    Create study cards using CT Framework

Group work
Use for midterm
Connect with campus community and resources     Student Success must create a connection between students and campus communities because research shows that 6 out of 10 students who leave commuter campuses have not connected to the school as their new community   Career Exploration
Service Learning
Student Life
Learning Communities
Campus Resources
Diversity       Career Project
Service Connecting Activity
Student Life Activity
Study Group Activity
Resource report Invite Academic Advising to discuss careers
Set up class committees to plan activities

Course Evaluation
The framework also allows for on-going evaluation and refinement of course effectiveness.  Both program directors and individual instructors can reflect (Why/What/How) on all aspects of course content and delivery and experiment (What if) with new topics and methods.  The reflective nature of these questions encourages the level of reasoning necessary to develop a rationale for program changes.  These questions can also reveal aspects of the program that demand additional research.

Preliminary Study
Research in progress with first-year college students enrolled at Utah Valley State College measures uses the Critical Thinking Framework Academic Self-Efficacy Survey (Appendix A) to measure a student's confidence before and after learning the MAP.  The study was designed to answer the following question:
How much did explicit instruction in higher order thinking using the MAP impact the academic self-efficacy of college success students?

Research Methods
The design is a classic pretest-treatment-posttest comparing the means of the two sets of scores. The instrument was given to students in class.  A preliminary test of the instrument indicates that the instrument provides a valid measurement of self-efficacy. The sample is a self-selected sample of students from Student Success classes. Through a series of application assignments in individual, small group, and class discussions, students learned to use the framework to think more effectively.
Results
Initial research findings on the data gathered showed students improved from their pretest average of 8% confidence in their problem solving skills to a posttest average of 86% with an n=221. More evaluation needs to be done with still larger sample sizes; however, the results are still convincing.  The students who utilized the MAP increased their academic self-efficacy.  Qualitative essays written by former students also indicate the benefits of learning the MAP.

Conclusion
Our research is on-going and focused on developing research-derived instructional programs to help students develop their potential for academic success and personal well-being. Research findings to this point suggest that the MAP helps students develop cognitive and metacognitive skills necessary for students making the transition to college.  Furthermore, students develop self-awareness by understanding their preferred learning style, and they improve their self-efficacy by applying higher-level thinking skills in a variety of situations.  By incorporating the MAP, Becoming a Master Student becomes a more valuable tool in any first-year experience course.

References
Astin, A. W., and Astin, H. (1993). A social change model of leadership development: Guidebook version III. College Park, MD: National Clearing House for Leadership Programs.
Bartlett, T. (2002). Freshmen pay, mentally and physically as they adjust to life in college. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 48, 35-37.
Bitting, P. and Clift, R. (1988).Image of Reflection in Teacher Education, edited by Waxman et al., 1988, p. 11.
Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: Handbook I, The cognitive domain. New York, David McKay &Co. (With D. Krathwohl et al.)
Bloom, B. (1964) Taxonomy of educational obectives: Volume II, The affective domain. New York, David McKay & Co. (With B. Masia and D. Krathwohl.)
Bloom, B. (1976). Human characteristics and school learning. New York, McGraw-Hill.
Cooper, R. K., and Saway, A. (1997). Executive EQ: Emotional intelligence in leadership and organizations. New York: Putnam.
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. New York: W. I-I. Freeman. Ferrari, J.R. & Parkeg J.T. (1992). High school achievement, self-efficacy, and locus of control as predictors of freshman academic performance. Psychological Reports, 71, 51 5-518.
Debono, E. (1998). Lateral Thinking, Harper Row, New York, NY.
Dewey, J. (1965). Experience in Education, Collier, New York, NY.
Dryden, G., and Vos, J. (1994). The learning revolution. Winnipeg, Canada: Skills of Learning Publications.
Epstein, Seymour. (1998). Constructive thinking: The key to emotional intelligence. Westport, CT: Prager.
Facione, P. (1990). Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus for Purposes of Educational Assessment and Instruction, California State University, Fullerton, CA.
Kolb. D. A. and Fry, R. (1975) 'Toward an applied theory of experiential learning;, in C. Cooper (ed.) Theories of Group Process, London: John Wiley.
Marsh, N. (1990). The structure of academic self-concept: The Marsh/Shavelson model. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 623-636.
McCarthy, B. (1981).The 4-Mat System: Teaching to Learning Styles Through Right/Left Mode Techniques. Oak Brook IL: Excel.,
McCarthy, B. (1983). 4-MAT in Action: Creative Lesson Plans for Teaching to Learning Styles. Brook IL: Excel.,.
McCombs, B. L. (1986). The role of the self-system in self-regulated learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11 314-322.
Pascarella, E. T. & Terenzini, F T. (1991). How college effects students. San Francisco: Jossey Bess.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ for character, health, and lifelong achievement. New York: Bantam Books.
Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.
Nelson, D., and Low, G. (2003). Emotional intelligence: Achieving academic and career excellence. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Nelson, D., and Nelson, K. (2003). Emotional intelligence skills: Significant factors in freshman achievement and retention. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. CG032375)
Stemberg, R. J. (1985). Beyond IQ: A triarchic theory of human intelligence. Cambridge:  Cambridge University Press.
Stemberg, R. J. (1995). Successful intelligence: How practical and creative intelligence determine success in life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Weisenger, H. (1985). Dr. Weisenger's anger work-out book. New York: Quill Press.
Weisenger, H. (1998). Emotional intelligence at work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.


>>> [log in to unmask] 02/19/05 9:02 AM >>>
Hello from Kentucky,

I teach a college developmental reading class, and I'm going to do a
little lesson on articles that deal with a "caveat emptor" theme. This
is the description that I have for this unit:

>From credit card scams to junk mail to get-rich-quick schemes that
(surprisingly?) don't work, Americans are constantly being cheated.
Students need to be aware of what to look for¯and what to look out
for¯where their money is concerned.

Aside from credit card scams, junk mail, and get-rich-quick schemes,
what else would you suggest that I could add for this topic? (I have
already put in something about the Nigerian--and other countries--e-mail
hoax).

Many thanks.

Susie Thurman

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