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SOCNET  August 2007

SOCNET August 2007

Subject:

some abstracts from recent Complexity Digest

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 22 Aug 2007 10:48:33 -0400

Content-Type:

TEXT/PLAIN

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (98 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

As promised, I am going to put these on Socnet from time to time
It also is more timely, and may diversify our brains.

 Barry Wellman
 _______________________________________________________________________

  S.D. Clark Professor of Sociology, FRSC              NetLab Director
  Centre for Urban & Community Studies           University of Toronto
  455 Spadina Avenue          Room 418          Toronto Canada M5S 2G8
  http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman            fax:+1-416-978-7162
  Updating history:     http://chass.utoronto.ca/oldnew/cybertimes.php
         Elvis wouldn't be singing "Return to Sender" these days
 _______________________________________________________________________

Knowledge Networks In The Age Of The Semantic Web , Briefings Bioinfo.

Excerpts: The Web has become the major medium for various communities to
share their knowledge. To this end, it provides an optimal environment for
knowledge networks. The web offers global connectivity that is virtually
instantaneous, and whose resources and documents can easily be indexed for
easy searching. In the coupled realms of biomedical research and
healthcare, this has become especially important where today many
thousands of communities already exist that connect across academia,
hospitals and industry. (...) With the new standards and technologies of
the Semantic Web, effective utilization of knowledge networks will expand
profoundly, fostering new levels of innovation and knowledge.
* [8] Knowledge Networks In The Age Of The Semantic Web, [9] E. Neumann,
L. Prusak, May 2007, online 2007 /05/14, DOI: 10.1093/bib/bbm013,
Briefings in Bioinformatics
[8] http://bib.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/8/3/141

 The Complex Structure Of Hunter-Gatherer Social Networks , Proc. Biol.
Sc.

Excerpts: In nature, many different types of complex system form
hierarchical, self-similar or fractal-like structures that have evolved to
maximize internal efficiency. In this paper, we ask whether
hunter-gatherer societies show similar structural properties. We use
fractal network theory to analyse the statistical structure of 1189 social
groups in 339 hunter-gatherer societies from a published compilation of
ethnographies. We show that population structure is indeed self-similar or
fractal-like with the number of individuals or groups belonging to each
successively higher level of organization exhibiting a constant ratio
close to 4. (...) this remarkable self-similarity holds both within and
across cultures and continents. (...)
* [21] The Complex Structure Of Hunter-Gatherer Social Networks, M. J.
Hamilton , B. T. Milne , R. S. Walker , O. Burger , J. H. Brown,
2007/07/03, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2007.0564, Proceedings B: Biological
Sciences

Optimization in Networks , Chaos

Abstract:  The recent surge in the network modeling of complex systems has
set the stage for a new era in the study of fundamental and applied
aspects of optimization in collective behavior. This Focus Issue presents
an extended view of the state of the art in this field and includes
articles from a large variety of domains in which optimization manifests
itself, including physical, biological, social, and technological
networked systems
* [23] Optimization in Networks, Adilson E. Motter,  Zoltan Toroczkai,
2007/06/28, DOI: 10.1063/1.2751266, Chaos 17, 026101
[23] http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2751266

Evolution of Complex Modular Biological Networks , arXiv

Excerpt: Biological networks have evolved to be highly functional within
uncertain environments while remaining extremely adaptable. One of the
main contributors to the robustness and evolvability of biological
networks is believed to be their modularity of function, with modules
defined as sets of genes that are strongly interconnected but whose
function is separable from those of other modules. Here, we investigate
the in-silico evolution of modularity and robustness in complex artificial
metabolic networks that encode an increasing amount of information about
their environment while acquiring ubiquitous features of biological,
social, and engineering networks, such as scale-free edge distribution,
small-world property, and fault-tolerance.
* [25] Evolution of Complex Modular Biological Networks, Arend Hintze and
Christoph Adami, 2007/05/31, DOI: 0705.4674, arXiv
[25] http://uk.arXiv.org/abs/0705.4674

The Evolution of Altruism in Spatially Structured Populations , JASSS
Excerpt: The evolution of altruism in humans is still an unresolved
puzzle. Helping other individuals is often kinship-based or reciprocal.
Several examples show, however, that altruism goes beyond kinship and
reciprocity and people are willing to support unrelated others even when
this is at a cost and they receive nothing in exchange. Here we examine
the evolution of this "pure" altruism with a focus on altruistic teaching.
* [30] The Evolution of Altruism in Spatially Structured Populations,
Andr^ăs N^╬meth and K^ăroly Tak^ăcs, 2007/06/30, JASSS 10(1)
[30] http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/3/4.html

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