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SOCNET  February 2009

SOCNET February 2009

Subject:

today's gleanings from COmplexity Digest

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 13 Feb 2009 18:11:58 -0500

Content-Type:

TEXT/PLAIN

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (152 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

lots of stuff today

 Barry Wellman
 _______________________________________________________________________

  S.D. Clark Professor of Sociology, FRSC              NetLab Director
  Department of Sociology                        University of Toronto
  725 Spadina Avenue, Room 388                  Toronto Canada M5S 2J4
  http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman            fax:+1-416-978-3963

  Updating history:     http://chass.utoronto.ca/oldnew/cybertimes.php

 _______________________________________________________________________

 Network Analysis in the Social Sciences , Science

Abstract: Over the past decade, there has been an explosion of interest in
network research across the physical and social sciences. For social
scientists, the theory of networks has been a gold mine, yielding
explanations for social phenomena in a wide variety of disciplines from
psychology to economics. Here, we review the kinds of things that social
scientists have tried to explain using social network analysis and provide
a nutshell description of the basic assumptions, goals, and explanatory
mechanisms prevalent in the field. We hope to contribute to a dialogue
among researchers from across the physical and social sciences who share a
common interest in understanding the antecedents and consequences of
network phenomena.

* [31] Network Analysis in the Social Sciences, Stephen P. Borgatti, Ajay
Mehra, Daniel J. Brass, Giuseppe Labianca, 2009/02/13, DOI:
10.1126/science.1165821, Science Vol. 323. no. 5916, pp. 892 - 895 [31]
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1165821

----------------------

Boolean modeling of collective effects in complex networks ,
arXiv

Abstract: Complex systems are often modeled as Boolean networks in
attempts to capture their logical structure and reveal its dynamical
consequences. Approximating the dynamics of continuous variables by
discrete values and Boolean logic gates may, however, introduce dynamical
possibilities that are not accessible to the original system. We show that
large random networks of variables coupled through continuous transfer
functions often fail to exhibit the complex dynamics of corresponding
Boolean models in the disordered (chaotic) regime, even when each
individual function appears to be a good candidate for Boolean
idealization. A simple criterion identifies continuous systems that
exhibit the full dynamical range of their Boolean counterparts. Transfer
functions inferred from the literature on transcriptional regulation of
genes do not satisfy the criterion.

* [32] Boolean modeling of collective effects in complex networks,
Johannes Norrell, Joshua E. S. Socolar, 2008/11/13, DOI: 0811.2209, arXiv
[32] http://uk.arXiv.org/abs/0811.2209

---------------------------------

A Proximate Mechanism for Communities of Agents to Commemorate
Long Dead
Ancestors , JASSS

Abstract: Many human cultures engage in the collective commemoration of
dead members of their community. Ancestor veneration and other forms of
commemoration may help to reduce social distance within groups, thereby
encouraging reciprocity and providing a significant survival advantage.
Here we present a simulation in which a prototypical form of ancestor
commemoration arises spontaneously among computational agents programmed
to have a small number of established human capabilities. Specifically,
ancestor commemoration arises among agents that: a) form relationships
with each other, b)  communicate those relationships to each other, and c)
undergo cycles of life and death. By demonstrating that ancestor
commemoration could have arisen from the interactions of a small number of
simpler behavioural patterns, this simulation may provide insight into the
workings of human cultural systems, and ideas about how to study ancestor
commemoration among humans.

* [37] A Proximate Mechanism for Communities of Agents to Commemorate Long
Dead Ancestors, Bill Tomlinson, 2009/31/01, JASSS 12(1) [37]
http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/12/1/7.html


--------------------------------

 Modelling Control Of Epidemics Spreading By Long-Range
Interactions ,
Interface

Excerpts: We have studied the spread of epidemics characterized by a
mixture of local and non-local interactions. The infection spreads on a
two- dimensional lattice with the fixed nearest neighbour connections. In
addition, long-range dynamical links are formed by moving agents
(vectors). Vectors perform random walks, with step length distributed
according to a thick-tail distribution. Two distributions are considered
in this paper, an a-stable distribution describing self-similar vector
movement, (...). Such long-range interactions are hard to track and make
control of epidemics very difficult. We also allowed for cryptic
infection, (...).

* [38] Modelling Control Of Epidemics Spreading By Long-Range
Interactions, B. Dybiec , A. Kleczkowski , C. A. Gilligan, 2009/01/06,
DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2008.0468, Interface * Contributed by [39] Atin Das

http://journals.royalsociety.org/content/q0k48j70230k4h28/?p=111d36d09ed04455921f711d29b53210
&pi=12

-----------------------------------------------------

Where You Stand Depends Upon Where Your Grandparents Sat: The
Inheritability Of Generalized Trust , Public Opin. Quart.

Excerpt: Generalized trust is a stable value that is transmitted from
parents to children. Do its roots go back further in time? Using a
person's ethnic heritage (where their grandparents came from) and the
proportion of people of different ethnic backgrounds in a state, I ask
whether your own ethnic background matters more than whom you live among.
People whose grandparents came to the United States from countries that
have high levels of trust (Nordics, and the British) tend to have higher
levels of generalized trust (using the General Social Survey from 1972 to
1996). (...)

* [40] Where You Stand Depends Upon Where Your Grandparents Sat: The
Inheritability Of Generalized Trust, [41] E. M. Uslaner, Winter 2008,
online 2008 /11/26, DOI: 10.1093/poq/nfn058, Public Opinion Quarterly

--------------------------------------------------------

 Social Trust And Attitudes Toward Democracy , Public Opin. Quart.

Excerpt: In spite of the great importance attached by social capital
theory to the role of social trust in maintaining stable and effective
democracy, research has produced rather weak and mixed support for the
idea that the socially trusting individuals tend to be politically
trusting, and the weight of evidence suggests either a weak or
insignificant relationship between social and political trust. The present
work, however, reports robust and statistically significant correlations
between generalized social trust, on the one hand, and confidence in
political institutions and satisfaction with democracy, on the other. The
associations are significant in 23 European countries and in the United
States. (...)

* [47] Social Trust And Attitudes Toward Democracy, S. Zmerli , [48] K.
Newton, Winter 2008, online 2008 /11/16, DOI: 10.1093/poq/nfn054, Public
Opinion Quarterly

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