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The Decline of University Patenting and the End of the Bayh-Dole Effect
University patenting has been heralded as a symbol of changing relations
between universities and their social environments. The Bayh-Dole Act of
1980 in the USA was eagerly promoted by the OECD as a recipe for the
commercialization of university research, and the law was imitated by a
number of national governments. However, since the 2000s university
patenting in the most advanced economies has been on the decline both as a
percentage and in absolute terms. We suggest that the institutional
incentives for university patenting have disappeared with the new regime of
university ranking. Patents and spin-offs are not counted in university
rankings. In the new arrangements of university-industry-government
relations, universities have become very responsive to changes in their
Loet Leydesdorff & Martin Meyer
a Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR), University of
Amsterdam, Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
b SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK; Steunpunt O&O Statistieken,
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium.
<click here for pdf <http://www.leydesdorff.net/Bayh-Dole/Bayh-Dole
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