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PSYART  June 2009, Week 4

PSYART June 2009, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Sound and emotion

From:

Murray Schwartz <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Discussion Group for Psychology and the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 24 Jun 2009 11:07:10 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (124 lines)

Hi, Norm,

This is interesting, though I don't think it would surprise musicians.  But the author assumes that the musician spouse would want to reach the crib first, leaving out the whole question of the musician's personality, defenses and relationship to the other.  How would a narcissistic musician respond differently from an obsessional musician, or a paranoid musician?

Warm regards, Murray


-----Original Message-----
From: Discussion Group for Psychology and the Arts on behalf of Norman Holland
Sent: Wed 6/24/2009 10:43 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Sound and emotion
 
  [image: SciAm.com logo]

Mind Matters <http://www.scientificamerican.com/section.cfm?id=mindmatters> -
June 16, 2009
The Sound of Passion Musical training sharpens the ability to sense
emotions.

By Patricia Moreau

<http://oascentral.sciam.com/RealMedia/ads/click_lx.ads/sciam.com/print/mind-and-brain/L30/1643111428/Right1/sciam.com/n_2009_natural-path_remnant/n_2009_natural-path_remnant_rect.html/514f3671396b6b2b777a41414457346e?http://ad.doubleclick.net/jump/npm.scientificamerican/;kw=[placeholder];gen=m;age=3;pos=atf;col=r;tile=2;sz=300x250;click=;ord=1643111428?>
<http://oascentral.sciam.com/RealMedia/ads/click_lx.ads/sciam.com/print/mind-and-brain/L30/1643111428/Right1/sciam.com/n_2009_natural-path_remnant/n_2009_natural-path_remnant_rect.html/514f3671396b6b2b777a41414457346e?http://www.naturalpathmedia.com>

Imagine a quiet night like any other. Suddenly, your infant's cries break
the silence. Fully loaded with emotion, the sound triggers an urge to stand
up and run to your infant's room. But, considering that your spouse is a
musician and you are not, who will be the first to reach the crib?

According to Dana L. Strait and a team of
researchers<http://www.soc.northwestern.edu/brainvolts/>at
Northwestern University in Illinois, the musician should win the race.
Their latest study<http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121675723/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0>showed
that years of musical training leave the brains of musicians better
attuned to the emotional content, like anger, of vocal sounds. Ten years of
cello, say, can make a person more emotionally intelligent, in some sense.
So the alarm carried in a baby's cry make a deeper impression; your spouse
wins the race.

The new work is part of an emerging portrait of the broader
connections<http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.displayRecord&uid=2003-99991-007>between
music, emotion and speech.
These <http://www.springerlink.com/content/p304404208005814/>
studies<http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16900960>are
finding that musicians are more accurate in detecting emotion -- such
as
joy, sadness and anger -- in speech samples. The effect has been found even
in children as young as 7 years old, with as little as one year of music
training. It is a fascinating example of how experience in one domain
(music) benefits another (emotion perception). However, it is not until very
recently, with the publication of the new study by Strait and her
colleagues, that the biological foundation of the effect has been
demonstrated.

Strait's team decided to study the brain's very first responses to sound, in
the brain stem. The brain stem is the most ancient part of the brain, andis
the main entry door for all sensory stimuli. Once a sound reaches the nerves
in your ears, it travels to the brain stem to be processed in an automatic,
unconscious fashion. Both music and speech thus start their journey to the
higher brain regions through the brain stem.

To record brain stem responses, the researchers placed electrodes on the
heads of 30 people who were either musicians or non-musicians. The
electrodes measured the electric currents that send signals through the
brain stem, while the participants listened to an infant's unhappy cry.

The surprising result was that the musicians' brain showed enhanced
responses to the infant's cries. And the greater the number of years of
practice and the earlier the person began training, the stronger the signal.

But how can musical training account for musicians' advantage in detecting
vocal emotion? Strait and her colleagues suggest that as we engage in
activities that involve high levels of cognitive processing, such as memory
or attention in music, we also enhance our sensory system's responses. The
higher brain areas in the cortex are connected to lower brain areas, such as
the brain stem, and, through these connections, the two areas influence each
other.

However, there is still the question of causality: Does musical training
really affect the brain or could it be that musicians are simply born with a
different brain -- that they are naturally drawn to music by their cognitive
strengths? Another
study<http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/14/10/1088>suggests
that musical training really does drive changes in the brain.
Daniel J. Bosnyak and a team of researchers at McMaster University in
Hamilton, Ontario, demonstrated that the brain responses of a group of
non-musicians could change as a result of their participation in a just two
weeks of training to perceive pitches accurately.

With the emergence of brain imaging technologies, our understanding of the
effects of music training on the brain has been advancing rapidly. For
example, we now have clear evidence of morphological changes in the brain,
such as enhanced volume in the cortical motor representation of the hands of
string players or larger gray matter volume in parts of the musicians'
auditory cortex dedicated to pitch processing. Numerous studies have also
identified differences in patterns of brain activity between musicians and
non-musicians. However, even with all this building evidence, we are still
far from understanding exactly how music reshapes the structures and
activity of the brain.

Surprisingly, even with all the remaining questions regarding musical
training, the field of neuroscience of
music<http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v434/n7031/full/434312a.html>has
even more challenges to face. Although music processing has fascinated
neuroscientists for more than a century, it is only in the last decade that
it has become a subject of intense and systematic research. Aside from the
effects of musical training, many more aspects of music, such as how we
perceive it, how we enjoy it and how we make it, have been under the scope
of researchers. There is general agreement that the brain is tuned for
music<http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T24-4J9MT1M-1&_user=789722&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000043357&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=789722&md5=e3b76ef76333689697dcdc0889963b9c>,
but untangling the complex circuitry behind the wondrous experience of it
will require more research in this young and rich field.



*Are you a scientist? Have you recently read a peer-reviewed paper that you
want to write about? Then contact Mind Matters co-editor Gareth
Cook<[log in to unmask]" target="_blank">http:[log in to unmask]>,
a Pulitzer prize<http://link%20to:20//www.pulitzer.org/citation/2005-Explanatory-Reporting>-winning
journalist at the Boston Globe, where he edits the Sunday
Ideas<http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/>section.
*
    [image: Quantcast] <http://www.quantcast.com/p-8dwHOLIwK6auU>

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September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
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July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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December 1997, Week 5
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