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PSYART  June 2009, Week 4

PSYART June 2009, Week 4

Subject:

Re: Memory and reconsolidation

From:

Murray Schwartz <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Discussion Group for Psychology and the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 24 Jun 2009 11:26:14 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (84 lines)

Hi, Norm,

Another interesting study.  I would want to know more about two things: (1) What is meant by a "traumatic event"? Is this just another way of referring to a traumatic experience?  To call something an event already presupposes some psychic distance from the experience.  Suppose you survived the recent train crash in Washington, D.C.  You might respond as one of the survivors did in a TV interview, when he said that he didn't know what happened,  There was a loud crashing noise and then he realized that he was in a mangled car on top of another train.  For him, what is the traumatic event?  What I am getting at is that a traumatic experience is not yet an event as described from the "outside."  The confusion of experience and event can be consequential, as when it is assumed that, for example, everyone mistreated by a clergyman is automatically traumatized.  Some are, some severely, some not seriously.  (2) The key phrase seems to be that the chemical treatment "blocks the reconsolidation of the fear associated with the memory."  How would this treatment affect the memory of the traumatic experience next time it is evoked in a potentially dangerous context?  Am I alone in my anxious response to this new scientific potential?

Warm regards, Murray




-----Original Message-----
From: Discussion Group for Psychology and the Arts on behalf of Norman Holland
Sent: Wed 6/24/2009 9:48 AM
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: Memory and reconsolidation
 
    <http://www.mcgill.ca/>

Backing up your brain: McGill researchers discover how old memories are
re-saved and changed



 Discovery potentially opens way to treatments for PTSD and other
memory-related disorders

 Researchers at McGill University have discovered a series of molecular
mechanisms that regulate how our brains call up, restore and even change old
memories.



 This process, called memory reconsolidation, radically alters our
understanding of how memory works. The McGill team led by Prof. Karim Nader
discovered that extremely strong fear memories do not initially undergo
reconsolidation, but over time (on the order of a month or so) even these
memories can undergo reconsolidation. Furthermore, the authors identified
some of the brain mechanisms that determine whether a memory will or will
not undergo reconsolidation.  Their results will be published in the journal
*Nature Neuroscience* on June 21.

"The old theory is that once a memory is wired in your brain, it stays that
way," explained Nader, William Dawson Scholar and EWR Steacie Fellow in the
Department of Psychology. "But our discovery shows that once you remember
something, it doesn't stay wired in your brain, it becomes unwired and needs
to be restored again - reconsolidation."



 This latest finding builds on Nader's previous research which showed that
it was possible to chemically erase fearful memories in rats. That research
shed light on the neurobiology of memory and showed that long-term memories
can be unlocked and even modified. Nader's discoveries challenged
traditional views about the neural basis for memory.

The new findings deepen our understanding of the molecular basis by which
the brain controls which memories do and do not undergo reconsolidation.
Reconsolidation blockade has been suggested as a possible new treatment for
sufferers of psychological disorders, including those involving
uncontrollable, intrusive memories, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
(PTSD). The results of this research indicate that reconsolidation based
therapies of PTSD should not attempt to treat patients shortly after the
trauma.  This is because these extremely strong memories may not undergo
reconsolidation for a long period of time, up to a few months after
experiencing the trauma. Nader has previously collaborated with a team led
by Roger Pitman of Harvard University and McGill University Psychiatrist and
the Douglas Mental Health University Institute researcher Dr. Alain Brunet;
that collaboration demonstrated that interrupted reconsolidation can be used
to relieve the suffering of patients with chronic PTSD. The therapy involves
administering a common blood pressure drug, propranolol, as a traumatic
event is recounted. The propranolol partially blocks the reconsolidation of
the fear associated with the memory.  Amazingly, the trend of these findings
indicates that those with the oldest trauma responded best to the treatment,
exactly the same effect as found by Nader's group.

"These findings are very exciting because we have always known that not
every memory undergoes reconsolidation.  But there was nothing known about
the mechanisms that determine when a memory does or does not undergo
reconsolidation. These findings suggest a neurobiological principle that
controls this process. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial because
they tell us what has to happen on a neurobiological level in order to turn
reconsolidation on and off.   This is clinically important because in the
clinic we want to be able to turn reconsolidation on and off if possible."
said Nader.
      *Source: *http://www.mcgill.ca/

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