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A Semester of Midnights/Defining the Enrollment Boom/Boosting Math Standards/Guide for State Lawmakers on College Success/Do American Students Bring Down the Curve?


Dan Kern <[log in to unmask]>


Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals <[log in to unmask]>


Tue, 22 Dec 2009 10:15:29 -0600





text/plain (781 lines)

"Maybe, just maybe, a few more people realize that the six million students
at 1,177 community colleges are more than a line on a fact sheet."

A Semester of Midnights 

December 21, 2009 

By  <mailto:[log in to unmask]> Wick Sloane 

Foiled. At 1:45 a.m. By a pop-up window on our classroom SMART Board. "The
system will shut down for routine maintenance in 180 seconds." 

I had to hurry to save our work. For my final Bunker Hill Community College
Fall 2009 English 111 midnight class, I'd forgotten to ask my IT friends
about system status. There went my pedagico/journalistico coup de grace --
my students were going to write this column. We were going to file, photos
and all, from class. 

The class, 9 over the finish line out of 14 starters, was happy to leave the
work to me. Forty-eight large pizzas and 32 large meatball grinders, and who
knows how much coffee, since September, and we made it. The idea no one
believed in -- midnight classes -- had worked, my English section and the
Tuesday night class, Psych 101. 

Colleagues had taught me to bring food to off-hours courses. You just don't
know when a community college student has eaten. One night, I went in early
-- 10 p.m. The food vanished. Who might be hungrier than midnight students?
The overnight cleaning crew. I just went back to Harvard House of Pizza, our
family local, for another order. Nasser Khan, the owner, told me that his
son, now at Northeastern, had started college at BHCC. 

Since the students will read this, I'd better respect what I said anyone
writing anything must use -- Aristotle and the rhetorical triangle. Hitting
the three points, I am the author. You are the audience. 

The subject? A report on teaching English 111 for a semester, Thursdays from
11:45 p.m. until 2:30 a.m. Friday morning. 

Context? An Inside Higher Ed column. 

Purpose? To record all the fine work of the semester, without letting this
column slop into a feel-good tale of holiday heroism. 

This story remains a national nightmare. Why, in the wealthiest nation in
the world, are students, any students, going to school at midnight? Because
those students have lousy shifts at work is not the answer. Sure, I'm proud
to be on a team at a community college that reaches out until we, the
people, find a better idea. I admit I'm angrier than I was
<>  in September. I am
not the story. The students are. 

Who shows up for a midnight class? Kwesi George, who took the Tuesday
midnight psychology class and the Thursday writing class, walked each night
from Somerville to BHCC, roughly three miles, because the buses and trains
stop running about midnight. (Yes, we found rides for him when we discovered

"I signed up for midnight because school is important and I didn't want to
delay my education. Also, if I didn't go to school this semester, my mother
said she'd kick me out," Kwesi, 19, wrote for our crashed column. "I work at
Toys R Us. I am going to take another midnight class next semester." 

"I'm 57. I hadn't been to school in 40 years. I want to become a nurse,"
said Winston Chin. His best work was an essay about returning to China with
his parents and finding a brother he'd never met. The brother came to live
in Boston. "I work the 3-11 p.m. shift as a sterile processing tech,
sterilizing surgical instruments at Children's Hospital. I walked into the
shift change at work one day, and found 25 people clapping and cheering. I
had no idea what was going on. Someone said, 'Your face is on the front page
of The New York Times.' " 

Midnight classes have 1,000 Web hits,
%3Aofficial&hs=vcq&q=%22midnight+classes%22+bunker+hill&aq=f&oq=&aq>  and
counting. The Boston Globe, The Washington Post, The New York Times (Page
One!), the Associated Press -- more than 50 U.S. papers and also all over
the world, The International Herald Tribune, The Washington Times, WBUR-FM,
"The Story with Dick Gordon" on American Public Radio. The television crews
ended up in Pysch 101, with my colleague, Kathleen O'Neill, who proposed
midnight classes in the first place. So far, Fox News, local Boston
television news. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation visited some of the
students at work. CNN is still trying to find a date. 

Everyone is asking. Who are these students? They just are community college
students. In my 7 a.m. section, students are arriving from Logan Airport,
where they have spent the night gassing jet planes. At a 2 p.m. class, the
students may have been at work until midnight. Kathleen O'Neill and I keep
explaining that our midnight classes are just classes, examples of community
college classes, not exceptions. Perhaps our two classes have just given the
world a window into what's really happening at community colleges. Perhaps
with all this coverage the nation is realizing how many motivated students
there are. 

What do we have to do to keep the students' attention after midnight?
Nothing special, we say. Community college students know the value of
education and want to learn. Well, maybe a little nudge for the midnight
students. "Dear Students of Psychology 101 T2 & English 111 H4," U.S. Sen.
John F. Kerry (D-Mass.), wrote the students
rryLtr.jpg>  back in September. 

Excerpts from Kerry's letter: 

"Higher education is never easy - especially at that hour of the night! I
applaud your commitment - really, just enrolling is a big step forward. I
know that if you work hard and focus on your goals, there is no limit on
what you can accomplish. . I know that you are in good hands with Professor
Sloane and Professor O'Neill. They will do everything in their power to see
you succeed. Listen to them, ask questions, drinks lots of coffee, and this
will turn out to be one of the best experiences of your life." 

"That letter motivated me to stay in the class," Terrance Gallo, 18, told us
during our final class. "I felt like if the Senator noticed me, this class
must be important. We wrote him back. I learned how to write a letter to a
U.S. Senator." 

"When you wrote a letter giving us courage, I felt so grateful because I
didn't think I could do it, but for sure I did it," Theresa Nixon, who
declared her age "not applicable," wrote in her letter to Kerry. 

"The time works for me because I have a son, Isaiah, who is six. I work
40-50 hours a week at Beth Israel Hospital in the Emergency Room. Isaiah is
my life. I want him to know he can do anything if he has the faith and the
drive. Just like you Senator Kerry, you pursued and won the battle. I wanted
to take the time to thank you for this opportunity and for listening to us
because we do matter too." 

Time to file this one. So what? What does it all mean? Maybe, just maybe,
the national discussion is moving on from the hero-teacher stories to a new
chapter. Jaime Escalante from "Stand and Deliver," Erin Gruwell from
"Freedom Writers," and Jonathan Kozol have demonstrated that education can
reach the poor and the marginalized. Maybe, just maybe, a few more people
realize that the six million students at 1,177 community colleges are more
than a line on a fact sheet.

ts>  to comments (6) > 


Bottom of Form

 <> Post a JobComments on A
Semester of Midnights 

*	Posted by L. on December 21, 2009 at 7:45am EST 
*	Who paid for all that food?

*	Aristotle's Triangle? 
*	Posted by Edwin Duncan on December 21, 2009 at 8:00am EST 
*	Isn't that Kinneavy's communication triangle--based on Aristotle's
four appeals?

*	Food Payment 
*	Posted by Wick Sloane on December 21, 2009 at 10:30am EST 
*	I paid for the pizzas and the grinders myself. I did not keep the
receipts. I am not claiming a tax deduction. Life is too short. Speaking of
money, I note that my union chief at the NEA, Dennis Van Roekel, still won't
reply to my inquiries about what the NEA is doing to for community college
teachers with the current enrollment increase. Dennis, want to chip in for
the pizzas? 

*	Thanks, Wick! Good work! 
*	Posted by Prof. Ira Shor , Professor, English Phd Program/Coll of
Staten Island at City University of NY on December 21, 2009 at 12:15pm EST 
*	Thanks, Wick, for your superb reporting on your students. You gave
the students a rich humanity they have always had but rarely been
acknowledged for. You also showed how conditions work against the best
efforts of both students and teachers. 50 years ago Burton Clark proposed
his "cooling-out" thesis to explain what he saw being done to students at
one community college. At that time, policy-makers decided to segregate
working-class students onto separate and lesser campuses rather than open
4-yr coll to all. That segregation is still in place. I began teaching at a
community college and loved it until our successes were shut down by massive
budget cuts. You and other teachers who rage against the inequality of this
arrangement are my heroes. Can I pls suggest that the class inequality of
the comm coll be a theme for reading/writing in FYC as well as a goal of
encouraging students to become civic activists for equality in society as
well as successes in their future individual careers?

*	Walking the walk 
*	Posted by Gabrielle Halko on December 21, 2009 at 4:45pm EST 
*	Thanks, Professor Sloan, to you and to your colleagues who saw this
need and figured out how to fill it. I commend your students for their
extraordinary commitment to their education -- to be in the presence of such
drive and determination is something that I have been fortunate enough to
experience as a teacher. Our culture champions the average working-class
American when it suits; rarely does it seem to suit when the funding and
access for quality education are involved. It's easy to feel dejected and
demoralized, but I've been recharged by your columns over the past few

Thanks for reminding me of what's possible. It's a lovely gift.

*	Call me very moved by this 
*	Posted by Joyce Maynard , writer at none on December 21, 2009 at
8:15pm EST 
*	This story moved me deeply.

The next time anything in my life feels hard, i am going to think about the
midnight students (and their teachers) at Bunker Hill Community College.

Thank you Wick Sloane.



Defining the Enrollment Boom 

December 18, 2009 

All through the fall semester, community colleges have been reporting
enrollment growth. On Thursday, the American Association of Community
Colleges released the results of a survey
designed to see if the many individual reports add up to a national trend --
and the survey results suggest they do.

Nationally, head count in credit courses is up 11.4 percent over the last
year, and 16.9 percent over two years, according to the survey, which
included data from hundreds of colleges from every region of the country.
Notably, given that about 60 percent of community college students are
enrolled part time, one of the most dramatic parts of the new enrollment
surge is that it is coming in large part by full-time students. Over the
last two years, the percentage gain in full-time students has been more than
twice the rate as for part-time students.

Changes in Enrollment Head Count at Community Colleges

Full Time 

Part Time 


2007 to 2008 




2008 to 2009 




2007 to 2009 




In terms of geography, the rates of increase were largely similar across
urban, suburban and rural community colleges. But by region, there were
clear differences, with the Rocky Mountains seeing the largest increases and
being the only region where part-time enrollments outpaced full-time

Enrollment Changes at Community Colleges, 2007-9

New England 

Mid East 

Great Lakes 




Rocky Mountains 

Far West 

Full Time 









Part Time 


















A report on the results, by Christopher M. Mullin, the AACC program director
for policy analysis, and Kent Phillippe, director of research, says that
despite the increases, many community colleges fear that they lost students
who should have enrolled. And the report notes that many community colleges
that were not operating at capacity prior to the enrollment boom may be
doing so now.

"The reality of enrollment management is that one never knows how many
students who wished to enroll were unable to do so," the report says. Given
the importance community colleges place on being "open door institutions,"
the survey asked whether colleges believed that some potential students were
turned away from programs due to capacity issues, and 34.2 percent answered
in the affirmative. Asked why students didn't enroll, colleges cited
students not having enough money, or flexibility to take courses when they
are offered.

Capacity issues were most severe, colleges reported, in programs (such as
nursing) with laboratory and other equipment needs.

The experience this fall, the report says, suggests some national policy
issues that need attention. One is the need to better educate potential
students about financial aid. The report notes that many students who are
eligible for aid showed up to enroll without having applied. The other issue
is about transfer. With so many more students enrolling at community
colleges, the report notes, pressure will grow on four-year institutions
when more of these students than in the past want to finish bachelor's
programs elsewhere.

Karen Bleeker, president of the Community College of Denver, which is up
more than 35 percent in enrollment this fall, said that the national data
didn't surprise her. Bleeker said that whether the program is accounting or
early childhood education or general education or remedial education, the
number of sections is way up, and administrative spaces are being cleared to
make more room for classrooms.

One of her deans joked, Bleeker said, that the next person added to one
office would have to be attached with Velcro to the ceiling. So far, it
looks like the spring enrollments may be up by as much as 50 percent,
Bleeker added.

Based on a belief that the college has to respond to students who want to
enroll right now, Bleeker said that she does not want anyone turning away
students. In the past, the college has sometimes limited sections. With this
enrollment surge, she said, "I've told people to just keep filling your
sections and then we'll open more sections and we promise we'll find space

Deborah M. DiCroce, president of Tidewater Community College, in Virginia,
said her institution is fortunate to have recently opened several new
facilities, so it is able to handle the larger-than-projected enrollment
increase. This fall, when the college expected to see student numbers grow
by 6.5 percent, the actual increase was 17.8 percent.

In a split similar to the national data reported by the AACC, Tidewater has
seen full-time enrollment grow by 26.4 percent, while part-time enrollment
is up only 7.4 percent. DiCroce said that she believes that the economic
downturn is the key explanation, with more people feeling the need to either
prepare for new jobs or to start higher education without spending as much
as they would at a residential four-year institution.

In a shift that she believes is also related to the economy, Tidewater is
seeing male enrollment increases outpace female increases (17.4 percent vs.
11.3 percent) for the first time in many years.

Some community colleges started
<>  midnight courses
this semester as a way to make full use of classroom facilities and to
enroll students who have full non-academic lives. Tidewater hasn't gone that
route, but DiCroce said that more courses than ever before are being offered
at 7 a.m. (in person) and online. "Everything is up," she said.

-  <mailto:[log in to unmask]> Scott Jaschik 


nts>  to comments (6) > 


Comments on Defining the Enrollment Boom 

*	Priorities 
*	Posted by Strypes97 , Advising on December 18, 2009 at 11:15am EST 

.         Hmmm. Increased enrollment and our states are cutting their
budgets to higher education. Now, I know that the cuts have to come from
somewhere, but this has happened in the past. Every time there is a
recession, enrollment is up. One would think we'd have learned by now to
prepare for this. 

Then, I look at all the money that has been thrown at the Department of
Labor from the stimulus money. (I work with some of the recipients and they
can't find enough ways to spend the money.) Wouldn't it have been more
beneficial to give it to the educators who are seeing all these unemployed
people? Maybe then we could hire more adjuncts/faculty to accommodate all
these new students; we could provide proper services, and tuition increases,
budget cuts and layoffs wouldn't be such an issue.

*	Impressed by Community College of Denver 
*	Posted by CC Prof on December 18, 2009 at 1:00pm EST 

.         These passages are from the article:

"Karen Bleeker, president of the Community College of Denver, which is up
more than 35 percent in enrollment this fall, said that the national data
didn't surprise her. Bleeker said that whether the program is accounting or
early childhood education or general education or remedial education, the
number of sections is way up, and administrative spaces are being cleared to
make more room for classrooms.

One of her deans joked, Bleeker said, that the next person added to one
office would have to be attached with Velcro to the ceiling. So far, it
looks like the spring enrollments may be up by as much as 50 percent,
Bleeker added.

Based on a belief that the college has to respond to students who want to
enroll right now, Bleeker said that she does not want anyone turning away
students. In the past, the college has sometimes limited sections. With this
enrollment surge, she said, "I've told people to just keep filling your
sections and then we'll open more sections and we promise we'll find space

It sounds like the Community College of Denver is really hustling to make
sure it has sections for its students. I applaud their efforts.

My CC has also done a good job offering sections and finding space. However,
the local 4-year institution isn't. Instead of making do with less, they
terminated adjuncts and kept all the administrators, including a bunch of
provosts. The population of the state is growing rapidly, but they offered
fewer sections this fall than last. As a result, my CC was flooded with a
bunch of their students this fall, including juniors and seniors who needed

I wonder how much of the CC enrollment growth is due to traditional
college-age students who need something cheaper or who can't get all the
courses they need at their senior institution? 

*	Makes the case for resources to support CCs 
*	Posted by Jonathan Gueverra , CEO at Community College of the
District of Columbia on December 18, 2009 at 2:15pm EST 

.         This trend is not a surprise. It has been on the horizon for the
last few years. The Community College of DC admitted about 440 new students
this fall. Thus far, we have just under 1100 applications for the spring
2010 semester. Over 650 are completed applications. For us this represents a
50 percent increase. Oddly, one normally expects to have a larger percentage
of entering students in the fall and not in the spring semester.

Given our newness, lack of a formal marketing campaign and little to no
print advertising, it points to the greater need that exists in the DC Metro
area for the Community College of DC.

*	Sir, may I have another? 
*	Posted by Gary Davis , Principal at Board Solutions on December 18,
2009 at 2:30pm EST 

.         "Cut our funding and send us more students. Sure, we can handle

If you were a legislator on the appropriations committee, what would you

*	Posted by Hannah , Ex-Adjunked on December 18, 2009 at 8:00pm EST 

.         The very vulnerable classifieds yell that all adjuncts should be
laid off before any permanent classifieds. The adjuncts yell that districts
can teach far more students with current resources if they'd get rid of
full-timer overload and summer classes and retirees who come back to teach
part-time. (This is true to some extent, but then full-timers yell K-12
teachers don't have to think in terms that make decently paid teachers the
heavy) The full-timers yell that they could keep more sections open if only
some administrators take a pay cut and/or reduction in numbers. The CC
heierarchy is so carnivorous that I'm not sure a sudden infusion of funds as
they were two years ago would address the basic system fault that public
higher education in our culture is not seen as "necessary" and thus worthy
of a bit more taxpayer dollars. In about ten years, conservatives shouting
to cut, cut, cut public higher education may see their folly too late, when
they need a nurse, firefighter, cop, accountant, mechanic, CEO, lawyer,
mayor, or other essential community personnel. 

*	CCs: A Great Economical Option 
*	Posted by Paul DiCocco , Future Doctoral Student on December 18,
2009 at 8:00pm EST 

.         It's really not surprising how community college enrollment
increases during a bad economy. Money is scarce, so people go for what's
cheaper. Common sense. As for my job opportunities after obtaining my Ph.D.,
the community college sector seems like such an excellent avenue to find
employment. They require only a Master's degree to teach there, but a Ph.D.
only looks better (and some CCs are now preferring job applicants to hold a
Ph.D.). What an excellent idea :)

C Copyright 2009 Inside Higher Ed 





Boosting Math Standards 

December 21, 2009 

Aiming to improve student proficiency and achievement in mathematics,
multiple systems of higher education have recently raised either their
minimum standards for admission or their benchmarks for enrollment in
credit-bearing courses in the subject.

The University System of Maryland made such a revision
e/Admissions+Policy+Cover+-+Revised.pdf>  to its undergraduate admissions
e/Admissions+Policy+Revised+Draft.pdf>  two weeks ago, when its Board of
Regents approved a measure requiring that entering students take four
mathematics courses in high school instead of the previously required three:
algebra I, geometry and algebra II. The policy revision also requires that
students take a mathematics course in the senior year of high school, even
if they have already completed algebra II. These advanced students must take
a course at or above the level of algebra II, potentially exposing them to
calculus-based courses but preventing them from taking lower-level
statistics or discrete math courses. 

Next fall, all students must earn at least a 19 on their ACT in mathematics
to enroll in a credit-bearing course, up from the current cut score of 18.
The change was made after a statewide developmental education task force
TaskForce_FullReport_FINALFORWEB.pdf>  reported that experts had noted that
the state's current cut scores were "too low, especially in mathematics." In
addition to raising the cut score, the panel also recommended that the state
develop common placement exams beyond that of the initial ACT score "to
identify the specific level and areas of underpreparation for an individual

This change to the cut score will increase the demand for remedial
mathematics courses
e/New+cut-offs+total.pdf>  around the state. With the current cut score of
18, 30 percent of the students who entered the state's institutions in 2006
required math remediation. With the new cut score of 19, that figure would
rise to 38 percent, based on the same 2006 entering cohort.

Sue Cain, coordinator of developmental education and the college readiness
initiative for the Kentucky <>  Council on Postsecondary
Education, said a number of four-year institutions in the state are
considering raising their admissions standards so that they will not have to
offer remedial courses. In Kentucky, she noted, each public institution must
provide remedial coursework to any students it chooses to admit.
Practically, this means all but the state's two research institutions -- the
University of Kentucky and the University of Louisville -- offer numerous
remedial options for their students because their admissions standards allow
for students who need remediation.

Cain noted that the state's institutions have been experimenting with
offering "accelerated" remedial courses, lasting anywhere between six and
eight weeks, that speed students to credit-bearing courses sooner, making
them more likely to succeed. Still, in some circumstances, a number of these
four-year students may choose to take remedial coursework at a nearby
community college to save money.

By next fall, Cain explained, all of the state's high schools will have
"transitional" mathematics courses in which students would be taking a
state-designed placement test that would trump a low ACT score if passed.
She noted that the state's work to define "college readiness" at all of its
high schools, like the move to increase minimum admissions standards in
Maryland, was also inspired by the Common
<>  Core Standards

A newly minted state law
ing+/senate+bill+1.htm> , calling for more accountability in the state's
K-12 and higher education institutions, set some ambitious goals that Cain
and others hope the recent change to the cut score and the "transitional"
high school mathematics courses will help them meet. It calls for the state
"to reduce college remediation rates by at least 50% by 2014 from the 2010
rates and increase the college completion rates of students enrolled in one
or more remedial classes by three percent annually from 2009-2014."

"I've worked my entire life to work myself out of a job," Cain quipped. "And
I know that there are many people, like me, who are trying to work
themselves out of the developmental education business. The attitude of
cooperation, collaboration and partnership has put us ahead of many states
here in Kentucky."

Though its plans are still in the early stages of development
<> ,
the City University of New York system is also eyeing changes to its method
of determining whether a student is prepared for college-level mathematics.
There are currently three ways that a student can test into credit-bearing
mathematics courses: a satisfactory SAT score or COMPASS
<>  score or having passed one of the two New
York State's Regents <>
Examinations offered in the subject. The state is currently introducing a
third Regents Examination in mathematics.

Alexandra Logue, executive vice chancellor at CUNY, noted that the system is
considering requiring students to pass two Regents Examinations in
mathematics instead of one. The other options for testing into
credit-bearing courses would remain the same.

Full article and 16 comments, so far:



Guide for State Lawmakers on College Success

Legislators in some states have taken aggressive steps to improve college
success -- and the National Conference of State Legislators is drawing
<>  to
their efforts in order to inspire and inform their peers elsewhere. "The
Path to a Degree: A Legislator's Guide to College Access and Success," a new
report <>
from the group, contains a series of briefs on specific issues, such as
financial aid policies, work force readiness, and college success.




Do American Students Bring Down the Curve?

"My Lazy American Students," an op-ed in
1/my_lazy_american_students/?p1=Well_MostPop_Emailed1> The Boston Globe, is
attracting considerable online debate. The piece -- by Kara Miller, who
teaches history and rhetoric at Babson College -- compares her American and
foreign students. "My 'C,' 'D,' and 'F' students this semester are almost
exclusively American, while my students from India, China, and Latin America
have -- despite language barriers -- generally written solid papers,
excelled on exams, and become valuable class participants," writes Miller.
She compares the way her foreign students listen to everything she says,
while "[t]oo many 18-year-old Americans, meanwhile, text one another under
their desks (certain they are sly enough to go unnoticed), check e-mail,
decline to take notes, and appear tired and disengaged." Reader reactions
vary widely. Some credit Miller with drawing attention to a real problem.
Others say she doesn't understand higher education. Wrote one commenter:
"Sorry, teach, but our American kids know that college is for boozing, drugs
and hooking up. They'll start working hard when it matters -- the day they
get their first job."



The Boston Globe (link above) article with link at bottom of article to 393
comments, so far:






Dan Kern

AD21, Reading

East Central College

1964 Prairie Dell Road

Union, MO  63084-4344

Phone:  (636) 583-5195

Extension:  2426

Fax:  (636) 584-0513

Email:  [log in to unmask]


Veterans Day 2009:


Cowardice asks the question, 'Is it safe?' Expediency asks the question, 'Is
it politic?' Vanity asks the question, 'Is it popular?' But, conscience asks
the question, 'Is it right?' And there comes a time when one must take a
position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular but one must take it
because one's conscience tells one that it is right. (Martin Luther King,

Instruction begins when you, the teacher, learn from the learner. Put

yourself in his place so that you may understand what he learns and

the way he understands it. (Kierkegaard)


To freely bloom - that is my definition of success. -Gerry Spence, lawyer
(b. 1929)    [Benjamin would be proud, I think.]


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