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Normalization at the field level: fractional counting of citations
Journal of Informetrics (forthcoming).
Van Raan et al. (2010; arXiv:1003.2113 <http://arxiv.org/abs/1003.2113> )
have proposed a new indicator (MNCS) for field normalization. Since field
normalization is also used in the Leiden Rankings of universities, we
elaborate our critique of journal normalization in Opthof & Leydesdorff
(2010; arXiv:1002.2769 <http://arxiv.org/abs/1002.2769> ) in this rejoinder
concerning field normalization. Fractional citation counting thoroughly
solves the issue of normalization for differences in citation behavior among
fields. This indicator can also be used to obtain a normalized impact
Scopus' SNIP indicator
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
Rejoinder to Moed (2010; at http://arxiv.org/abs/1005.4906): Our main
objection is against developing new indicators which, like some of the older
ones (for example, the "crown indicator" of CWTS), do not allow for
indicating error because they do not provide a statistics, but are based, in
our opinion, on a violation of the order of operations. The claim of
validity for the SNIP indicator is hollow because the normalizations are
based on field classifications which are not valid. Both problems can
perhaps be solved by using fractional counting.
Loet Leydesdorff & Tobias Opthof
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam.
Tel. +31-20-525 6598; fax: +31-842239111
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