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Thank you to all of those who responded to my request for research
focusing on defining friendship, particularly that of a best friend during
adolescence. I received many helpful suggestions from a wide variety
scholars ranging from up and coming graduate students to leaders in the
Adams, Rebecca G., Rosemary Blieszner, und Brian De Vries. 2000.
"Definitions of friendship in the third age: Age, gender, and study
location effects." Journal of Aging Studies 14:117-133.
Bellotti, E., 2008a. What are friends for? Elective communities of single
people, in Social Networks, 30, 318-329.
Bellotti, E., 2008b. Amicizie. Le reti social dei giovani single, Milano,
Berndt, T. J., & Hoyle, S. G. (1985). Stability and Change in Childhood
and Adolescent Friendships. Developmental Psychology, 21(6), 1007-1015.
Bidart, Claire "l'amitie, un lien social"
Bukowski, W. M., Hoza, B., & Boivin, M. (1994). Measuring friendship
quality during pre- and early adolescence: The development of psychometric
properties of the friendship qualities scale. Journal of Social and
Personal Relationships, 11, 471-484.
Cairns, R. B., & Cairns, B. D. (1994). Lifelines and Risks: Pathways of
Youth in Our Time. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hardy, C. L., Bukowski, W. M., & Sippola, L. K. (2002). Stability and
Change in Peer Relationships During the Transition to Middle-Level School.
Journal of Early Adolescence, 22, 117-142.
Hartup, W. W. (1993). Adolescents and Their Friends. New Directions for
Child Development, 60, 3-22.
Hartup, W. W., & Stevens, N. (1997). Friendship and Adaptation in the Life
Course. Psychological Bulletin, 121(3), 355-370.
Krackhardt, D. (1992). The Strength of Strong Ties. In N. Nohria & R. G.
Eccles (Eds.), Networks and Organizations: Structure, Form, and Action1992
(1st ed., pp. 216-239). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Krackhardt, D. (1998). Simmelian Ties: Super Strong and Sticky. In R.
Kramer & M. Neale (Eds.), Power and Influence in Organizations (1st ed.,
pp. 21-38). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Krackhardt, D. (1999). The Ties that Torture: Simmelian Tie Analysis in
Organizations. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 16, 183-210.
Matthews, Sarah H. 1983. "Definitions of Friendship and their Consequences
in Old Age." Ageing & Society 3:141-155.
Tortoriello, M., & Krackhardt, D. (2010). ACTIVATING CROSS-BOUNDARY
KNOWLEDGE : THE ROLE OF SIMMELIAN TIES IN THE GENERATION OF INNOVATIONS.
Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 167-181.
van de Bunt, G.G., Van Duijn, M.A.J., and Snijders, T.A.B., Friendship
networks through time: An actor-oriented statistical network model.
Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 5 (1999), 167-192.
In general, use of the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships and
the work of Caroline Haythornthwaite.
Carter Rees, Ph.D.
Arizona State University
School of Criminology and Criminal Justice
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