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SOCNET  April 2014

SOCNET April 2014

Subject:

selected [comdig] Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 28 Apr 2014 16:40:11 -0400

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MULTIPART/MIXED

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TEXT/PLAIN (104 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

   Barry Wellman
  _______________________________________________________________________

   NetLab                        FRSC                      INSNA Founder
   Faculty of Information (iSchool)                 611 Bissell Building
   140 St. George St.    University of Toronto    Toronto Canada M5S 3G6
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman          twitter: @barrywellman
                  NSA/CSEC: Canadian and American citizen
   NETWORKED:The New Social Operating System. Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
   MIT Press            http://amzn.to/zXZg39      Print $14  Kindle $16
                  Old/NewCyberTimes http://bit.ly/c8N9V8
   ________________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 28 Apr 2014 13:37:46 -0500
From: Complexity Digest Administration <[log in to unmask]>
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: [comdig] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://comdig.unam.mx



Career on the Move: Geography, Stratification, and Scientific Impact

    Changing institutions is an integral part of an academic life. Yet little is known about the mobility patterns of scientists at an institutional level and how these career choices affect scientific outcomes. Here, we examine over 420,000 papers, to track the affiliation information of individual scientists, allowing us to reconstruct their career trajectories over decades. We find that career movements are not only temporally and spatially localized, but also characterized by a high degree of stratification in institutional ranking. When cross-group movement occurs, we find that while going from elite to lower-rank institutions on average associates with modest decrease in scientific performance, transitioning into elite institutions does not result in subsequent performance gain. These results offer empirical evidence on institutional level career choices and movements and have potential implications for science policy.

Career on the Move: Geography, Stratification, and Scientific Impact
˙˙ Pierre Deville, Dashun Wang, Roberta Sinatra, Chaoming Song, Vincent D. Blondel & Albert-László Barabási

Scientific Reports 4, Article number: 4770 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep04770

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4020264266/2014/04/25/career-on-the-move-geography-stratification-and-scientific-impact) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Uncovering the structure and temporal dynamics of information propagation

    Time plays an essential role in the diffusion of information, influence, and disease over networks. In many cases we can only observe when a node is activated by a contagion˙˙when a node learns about a piece of information, makes a decision, adopts a new behavior, or becomes infected with a disease. However, the underlying network connectivity and transmission rates between nodes are unknown. Inferring the underlying diffusion dynamics is important because it leads to new insights and enables forecasting, as well as influencing or containing information propagation. In this paper we model diffusion as a continuous temporal process occurring at different rates over a latent, unobserved network that may change over time. Given information diffusion data, we infer the edges and dynamics of the underlying network. Our model naturally imposes sparse solutions and requires no parameter tuning. We develop an efficient inference algorithm that uses stochastic convex optimization to
compute online estimates of the edges and transmission rates. We evaluate our method by tracking information diffusion among 3.3 million mainstream media sites and blogs, and experiment with more than 179 million different instances of information spreading over the network in a one-year period. We apply our network inference algorithm to the top 5,000 media sites and blogs and report several interesting observations. First, information pathways for general recurrent topics are more stable across time than for on-going news events. Second, clusters of news media sites and blogs often emerge and vanish in a matter of days for on-going news events. Finally, major events, for example, large scale civil unrest as in the Libyan civil war or Syrian uprising, increase the number of information pathways among blogs, and also increase the network centrality of blogs and social media sites.

Uncovering the structure and temporal dynamics of information propagation
MANUEL GOMEZ RODRIGUEZ, JURE LESKOVEC, DAVID BALDUZZI, BERNHARD SCHÖLKOPF
Network Science , Volume 2 , Issue 01 , April 2014, pp 26 - 65
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/nws.2014.3 ;

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4020209902/2014/04/24/uncovering-the-structure-and-temporal-dynamics-of-information-propagation) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Resilience of modular complex networks

    Complex networks often have a modular structure, where a number of tightly- connected groups of nodes (modules) have relatively few interconnections. Modularity had been shown to have an important effect on the evolution and stability of biological networks, on the scalability and efficiency of large-scale infrastructure, and the development of economic and social systems. An analytical framework for understanding modularity and its effects on network vulnerability is still missing. Through recent advances in the understanding of multilayer networks, however, it is now possible to develop a theoretical framework to systematically study this critical issue. Here we study, analytically and numerically, the resilience of modular networks under attacks on interconnected nodes, which exhibit high betweenness values and are often more exposed to failure. Our model provides new understandings into the feedback between structure and function in real world systems, and consequently
has important implications as diverse as developing efficient immunization strategies, designing robust large-scale infrastructure, and understanding brain function.

Resilience of modular complex networks
Saray Shai, Dror Y. Kenett, Yoed N. Kenett, Miriam Faust, Simon Dobson, Shlomo Havlin

http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.4748

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4020066587/2014/04/22/resilience-of-modular-complex-networks) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)


Power-law distributions in binned empirical data

    Many man-made and natural phenomena, including the intensity of earthquakes, population of cities and size of international wars, are believed to follow power-law distributions. The accurate identification of power-law patterns has significant consequences for correctly understanding and modeling complex systems. However, statistical evidence for or against the power-law hypothesis is complicated by large fluctuations in the empirical distribution's tail, and these are worsened when information is lost from binning the data. We adapt the statistically principled framework for testing the power-law hypothesis, developed by Clauset, Shalizi and Newman, to the case of binned data. This approach includes maximum-likelihood fitting, a hypothesis test based on the Kolmogorov--Smirnov goodness-of-fit statistic and likelihood ratio tests for comparing against alternative explanations. We evaluate the effectiveness of these methods on synthetic binned data with known structure,
quantify the loss of statistical power due to binning, and apply the methods to twelve real-world binned data sets with heavy-tailed patterns.

Power-law distributions in binned empirical data
Yogesh Virkar, Aaron Clauset

http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.3524

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4020065618/2014/04/22/power-law-distributions-in-binned-empirical-data) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Networks of Echoes: Imitation, Innovation and Invisible Leaders (by Bruce J. West et al.)

    Networks of Echoes: Imitation, Innovation and Invisible Leaders is a mathematically rigorous and data rich book on a fascinating area of the science and engineering of social webs. There are hundreds of complex network phenomena whose statistical properties are described by inverse power laws. The phenomena of interest are not arcane events that we encounter only fleetingly, but are events that dominate our lives. We examine how this intermittent statistical behavior intertwines itself with what appears to be the organized activity of social groups. The book is structured as answers to a sequence of questions such as: How are decisions reached in elections and boardrooms? How is the stability of a society undermined by zealots and committed minorities and how is that stability re-established? Can we learn to answer such questions about human behavior by studying the way flocks of birds retain their formation when eluding a predator? These questions and others are answered
using a generic model of a complex dynamic network˙˙one whose global behavior is determined by a symmetric interaction among individuals based on social imitation. The complexity of the network is manifest in time series resulting from self-organized critical dynamics that have divergent first and second moments, are non-stationary, non-ergodic and non-Poisson. How phase transitions in the network dynamics influence such activity as decision making is a fascinating story and provides a context for introducing many of the mathematical ideas necessary for understanding complex networks in general. The decision making model (DMM) is selected to emphasize that there are features of complex webs that supersede specific mechanisms and need to be understood from a general perspective. This insightful overview of recent tools and their uses may serve as an introduction and curriculum guide in related courses.

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxbooks/p/4020010213/2014/04/21/networks-of-echoes-imitation-innovation-and-invisible-leaders-by-bruce-j-west-et-al) , via CxBooks (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxbooks)



The Bounds of Reason: Game Theory and the Unification of the Behavioral Sciences (by Herbert Gintis)

    Game theory is central to understanding human behavior and relevant to all of the behavioral sciences--from biology and economics, to anthropology and political science. However, as The Bounds of Reason demonstrates, game theory alone cannot fully explain human behavior and should instead complement other key concepts championed by the behavioral disciplines. Herbert Gintis shows that just as game theory without broader social theory is merely technical bravado, so social theory without game theory is a handicapped enterprise. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated.

Reinvigorating game theory, The Bounds of Reason offers innovative thinking for the behavioral sciences.

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxbooks/p/4020009974/2014/04/21/the-bounds-of-reason-game-theory-and-the-unification-of-the-behavioral-sciences-by-herbert-gintis) , via CxBooks (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxbooks)

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