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SOCNET  October 2014

SOCNET October 2014

Subject:

[comdig] Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 6 Oct 2014 14:41:00 -0400

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*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****


selected

   Barry Wellman
  _______________________________________________________________________
   FRSC		              NetLab Network              INSNA Founder
                      Faculty of Information (iSchool)
   University of Toronto                          Toronto Canada M5S 3G6
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman          twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED:The New Social Operating System. Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
   MIT Press            http://amzn.to/zXZg39      Print $15  Kindle $9
                  Old/NewCyberTimes http://bit.ly/c8N9V8
   ________________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 6 Oct 2014 09:04:04 -0500
From: Complexity Digest Administration <[log in to unmask]>
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: [comdig] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://comdig.unam.mx



Social Network Analysis Shows Direct Evidence for Social Transmission of Tool Use in Wild Chimpanzees

    Chimpanzees are widely considered as the most   cultural   of all animals, despite the lack of direct evidence for the spread of novel behaviors through social learning in the wild. Here, we present a novel, dynamic network-based diffusion analysis to describe the acquisition patterns of novel tool-use behavior in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. We find strong evidence for social transmission of   moss-sponging   (the production of a sponge consisting of moss) along the innovators' social network, demonstrating that wild chimpanzees learn novel tool-use behaviors from each other and supporting the more general claim that some of the observed behavioral diversity in wild chimpanzees should be interpreted as   cultural.   Our model also estimated that, for each new observation, na´ve individuals enhanced their chances of developing moss-sponging by a factor of 15. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants can be socially learned in wild
chimpanzees, addressing an important critique of the claim of culture in our closest relatives.

Hobaiter C, Poisot T, ZuberbŘhler K, Hoppitt W, Gruber T (2014) Social Network Analysis Shows Direct Evidence for Social Transmission of Tool Use in Wild Chimpanzees. PLoS Biol 12(9): e1001960. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001960

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4029181484/2014/10/03/social-network-analysis-shows-direct-evidence-for-social-transmission-of-tool-use-in-wild-chimpanzees) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Contact Patterns among High School Students

    Face-to-face contacts between individuals contribute to shape social networks and play an important role in determining how infectious diseases can spread within a population. It is thus important to obtain accurate and reliable descriptions of human contact patterns occurring in various day-to-day life contexts. Recent technological advances and the development of wearable sensors able to sense proximity patterns have made it possible to gather data giving access to time-varying contact networks of individuals in specific environments. Here we present and analyze two such data sets describing with high temporal resolution the contact patterns of students in a high school. We define contact matrices describing the contact patterns between students of different classes and show the importance of the class structure. We take advantage of the fact that the two data sets were collected in the same setting during several days in two successive years to perform a longitudinal
analysis on two very different timescales. We show the high stability of the contact patterns across days and across years: the statistical distributions of numbers and durations of contacts are the same in different periods, and we observe a very high similarity of the contact matrices measured in different days or different years. The rate of change of the contacts of each individual from one day to the next is also similar in different years. We discuss the interest of the present analysis and data sets for various fields, including in social sciences in order to better understand and model human behavior and interactions in different contexts, and in epidemiology in order to inform models describing the spread of infectious diseases and design targeted containment strategies.

Fournet J, Barrat A (2014) Contact Patterns among High School Students. PLoS ONE 9(9): e107878. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107878

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4029181403/2014/10/03/contact-patterns-among-high-school-students) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



The Logic of the Physics of Information

    A consensus is emerging that the multiple forms, functions and properties of information cannot be captured by a simple categorization into classical and quantum information. Similarly, it is unlikely that the applicable physics of information is a single classical discipline, completely expressible in mathematical terms, but rather a complex, multi- and trans-disciplinary field involving deep philosophical questions about the underlying structure of the universe. This paper is an initial attempt to present the fundamental physics of non-quantum information in terms of a novel non-linguistic logic. Originally proposed by the Franco-Romanian thinker StÚphane Lupasco (1900  1988), this logic, grounded in quantum mechanics, can reflect the dual aspects of real processes and their evolution at biological, cognitive and social levels of reality. In my update of this logical system  Logic in Reality (LIR)  a change in perspective is required on the familiar notions in science and
philosophy of causality, continuity and discontinuity, time and space. I apply LIR as a critique of current approaches to the physical grounding of information, focusing on its qualitative dualistic aspects at non-quantum levels as a set of physical processes embedded in a physical world.

The Logic of the Physics of Information
Joseph E. Brenner

Information 2014, 5(3), 389-403; http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/info5030389

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4029181515/2014/10/03/the-logic-of-the-physics-of-information) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



  Unintended effects  : A theorem for complex systems

    Unintended effects are well known to economists and sociologists and their consequences may be devastating. The main objective of this article is to formulate a mathematical theorem, based on G÷del's famous incompleteness theorem, in which it is shown, that from the moment deontical modalities (prohibition, obligation, permission, and faculty) are introduced into the social system, responses are allowed by the system that are not produced, however, prohibited responses or unintended effects may occur.

  Unintended effects  : A theorem for complex systems
J.L. Usˇ-DomÚnech, J. Nescolarde-Selva* andM. Lloret-Climent
Complexity

Article first published online: 29 SEP 2014
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplx.21609

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4029181351/2014/10/03/unintended-effects-a-theorem-for-complex-systems) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Effect of individual behavior on epidemic spreading in activity-driven networks

    In this work we study the effect of behavioral changes of individuals on the propagation of epidemic diseases. Specifically, we consider a susceptible-infected-susceptible model over a network of contacts that evolves in a time scale that is comparable to the individual disease dynamics. The phenomenon is modeled in the context of activity-driven networks, in which contacts occur on the basis of activity potentials. To offer insight into behavioral strategies targeting both susceptible and infected individuals, we consider two separate behaviors that may emerge in respiratory syndromes and sexually transmitted infections. The first is related to a reduction in the activity of infected individuals due to quarantine or illness. The second is instead associated with a selfish self-protective behavior of susceptible individuals, who tend to reduce contact with the rest of the population on the basis of a risk perception. Numerical and theoretical results suggest that behavioral
changes could have a beneficial effect on the disease spreading, by increasing the epidemic threshold and decreasing the steady-state fraction of infected individuals.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.90.042801

Effect of individual behavior on epidemic spreading in activity-driven networks
Phys. Rev. E 90, 042801    Published 2 October 2014
Alessandro Rizzo, Mattia Frasca, and Maurizio Porfiri

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4029172851/2014/10/03/effect-of-individual-behavior-on-epidemic-spreading-in-activity-driven-networks) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



   Cities as complex adaptative systems. Luis Bettencourt

    http://youtu.be/vp6eKjQHNl0

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/talks/p/4029112618/2014/10/02/cities-as-complex-adaptative-systems-luis-bettencourt) , via Talks (http://www.scoop.it/t/talks)



Requisite Variety, Autopoiesis, and Self-organization

    Ashby's law of requisite variety states that a controller must have at least as much variety (complexity) as the controlled. Maturana and Varela proposed autopoiesis (self-production) to define living systems. Living systems also require to fulfill the law of requisite variety. A measure of autopoiesis has been proposed as the ratio between the complexity of a system and the complexity of its environment. Self-organization can be used as a concept to guide the design of systems towards higher values of autopoiesis, with the potential of making technology more "living", i.e. adaptive and robust.

Requisite Variety, Autopoiesis, and Self-organization
Carlos Gershenson

http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.7475

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4028924021/2014/09/29/requisite-variety-autopoiesis-and-self-organization) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Introduction to Complexity Science Winterschool@ NTU, Singapore

    See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxconferences/p/4028923556/2014/09/29/introduction-to-complexity-science-winterschool-ntu-singapore) , via CxConferences (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxconferences)



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