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SOCNET  February 2015

SOCNET February 2015

Subject:

complexity [comdig] Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 17 Feb 2015 20:37:10 -0500

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MULTIPART/MIXED

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*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****




   Barry Wellman
  _______________________________________________________________________
   FRSC		              NetLab Network              INSNA Founder
   Dept of Communication & New Media    National University of Singapore
   University of Toronto                                  Toronto Canada
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman          twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED:The New Social Operating System. Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
   MIT Press            http://amzn.to/zXZg39      Print $15  Kindle $9
                  Old/NewCyberTimes http://bit.ly/c8N9V8
              Happy Year of the Horned Hairy Fluffy Ruminant
   ________________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Wed, 18 Feb 2015 06:18:18 +0900
From: Complexity Digest Administration <[log in to unmask]>
To: [log in to unmask]
Subject: [comdig] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://comdig.unam.mx



What Isn't Complexity?

    The question What is Complexity? has occupied a great deal of time and paper over the last 20 or so years. There are a myriad different perspectives and definitions but still no consensus. In this paper I take a phenomenological approach, identifying several factors that discriminate well between systems that would be consensually agreed to be simple versus others that would be consensually agreed to be complex - biological systems and human languages. I argue that a crucial component is that of structural building block hierarchies that, in the case of complex systems, correspond also to a functional hierarchy. I argue that complexity is an emergent property of this structural/functional hierarchy, induced by a property - fitness in the case of biological systems and meaning in the case of languages - that links the elements of this hierarchy across multiple scales. Additionally, I argue that non-complex systems "are" while complex systems "do" so that the latter, in
distinction to physical systems, must be described not only in a space of states but also in a space of update rules (strategies) which we do not know how to specify. Further, the existence of structural/functional building block hierarchies allows for the functional specialisation of structural modules as amply observed in nature. Finally, we argue that there is at least one measuring apparatus capable of measuring complexity as characterised in the paper - the human brain itself.

What Isn't Complexity?
Christopher R. Stephens

http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03199

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4037168263/2015/02/15/what-isn-t-complexity) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Self-Organization, Emergence, and Constraint in Complex Natural Systems

    Contemporary complexity theory has been instrumental in providing novel rigorous definitions for some classic philosophical concepts, including emergence. In an attempt to provide an account of emergence that is consistent with complexity and dynamical systems theory, several authors have turned to the notion of constraints on state transitions. Drawing on complexity theory directly, this paper builds on those accounts, further developing the constraint-based interpretation of emergence and arguing that such accounts recover many of the features of more traditional accounts. We show that the constraint-based account of emergence also leads naturally into a meaningful definition of self-organization, another concept that has received increasing attention recently. Along the way, we distinguish between order and organization, two concepts which are frequently conflated. Finally, we consider possibilities for future research in the philosophy of complex systems, as well as
applications of the distinctions made in this paper.

Self-Organization, Emergence, and Constraint in Complex Natural Systems
Jonathan Lawhead

http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.01476

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4037168375/2015/02/14/self-organization-emergence-and-constraint-in-complex-natural-systems) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Networks Reveal the Connections of Disease

    Enormous databases of medical records have begun to reveal the hidden biological missteps that make us sick.

https://www.quantamagazine.org/20150129-networks-reveal-the-connections-of-disease/

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4037242344/2015/02/14/networks-reveal-the-connections-of-disease) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)


Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception

    We inspect a possible clustering structure of the corruption perception among 134 countries. Using the average linkage clustering, we uncover a well-defined hierarchy in the relationships among countries. Four main clusters are identified and they suggest that countries worldwide can be quite well separated according to their perception of corruption. Moreover, we find a strong connection between corruption levels and a stage of development inside the clusters. The ranking of countries according to their corruption perfectly copies the ranking according to the economic performance measured by the gross domestic product per capita of the member states. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to present an application of hierarchical and clustering methods to the specific case of corruption.

Worldwide clustering of the corruption perception
Michal Paulus, Ladislav Kristoufek

http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.00104

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4037167399/2015/02/14/worldwide-clustering-of-the-corruption-perception) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)


2015 Computational Social Science Summit

    This new annual computational social science summit is designed to create a broad community of social science researchers - academics, tech industry workers, open data activists, government agency workers, and think tank analysts ˙˙ dedicated to advancing sociological knowledge through computational methods. Our goal is to foreground social science research and identify areas that can benefit from a deep engagement with computer science and related areas. The Summit will take place over three days, from May 15-17 at Northwestern University˙˙s Kellogg School of Management in Evanston, IL.

http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/news-events/conference/csss/2015.aspx

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxconferences/p/4037242730/2015/02/13/2015-computational-social-science-summit) , via CxConferences (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxconferences)


Social media: A network boost

    How scientists can use Twitter to expand their social contacts and find jobs.

Social media: A network boost
Monya Baker
Nature 518, 263˙˙265 (12 February 2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nj7538-263a

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4037241669/2015/02/13/social-media-a-network-boost) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)


A survey of results on mobile phone datasets analysis

    In this paper, we review some advances made recently in the study of mobile phone datasets. This area of research has emerged a decade ago, with the increasing availability of large-scale anonymized datasets, and has grown into a stand-alone topic. We will survey the contributions made so far on the social networks that can be constructed with such data, the study of personal mobility, geographical partitioning, urban planning, and help towards development as well as security and privacy issues.

A survey of results on mobile phone datasets analysis
Vincent D. Blondel, Adeline Decuyper, Gautier Krings

http://arxiv.org/abs/1502.03406

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4037168448/2015/02/12/a-survey-of-results-on-mobile-phone-datasets-analysis) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



Systematic inequality and hierarchy in faculty hiring networks

    The faculty job market plays a fundamental role in shaping research priorities, educational outcomes, and career trajectories among scientists and institutions. However, a quantitative understanding of faculty hiring as a system is lacking. Using a simple technique to extract the institutional prestige ranking that best explains an observed faculty hiring network˙˙who hires whose graduates as faculty˙˙we present and analyze comprehensive placement data on nearly 19,000 regular faculty in three disparate disciplines. Across disciplines, we find that faculty hiring follows a common and steeply hierarchical structure that reflects profound social inequality. Furthermore, doctoral prestige alone better predicts ultimate placement than a U.S. News & World Report rank, women generally place worse than men, and increased institutional prestige leads to increased faculty production, better faculty placement, and a more influential position within the discipline. These results advance
our ability to quantify the influence of prestige in academia and shed new light on the academic system.

Systematic inequality and hierarchy in faculty hiring networks
Aaron Clauset, Samuel Arbesman, Daniel B. Larremore

Science Advances 01 Feb 2015: Vol. 1 no. 1 e1400005

http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1400005

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers/p/4037176850/2015/02/12/systematic-inequality-and-hierarchy-in-faculty-hiring-networks) , via Papers (http://www.scoop.it/t/papers)



IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems

    The Ninth IEEE International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems (SASO 2015)
Boston Massachusetts; 21-25 September 2015
https://saso2015.mit.edu/

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxconferences/p/4036541253/2015/02/09/ieee-international-conference-on-self-adaptive-and-self-organizing-systems) , via CxConferences (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxconferences)



WCCS15: 2015 IEEE Third World Conference on Complex Systems.

    After the success of the previous editions (ICCS˙˙12 and WCCS14), we are very glad to announce the WCCS15, ˙˙Third World Conference on Complex Systems˙˙. The WCCS15 will be organized by Ibn Zohr University; Moroccan Society of Complex Systems and National College of IT (ENSIAS, Mohamed V Souissi University) in partnership with IEEE Moroccan section and International Academy for Systems and Cybernetic Science  during November 23-25, 2015 in Marrakech-Morocco.

http://mscomplexsystems.org/wccs15/

See it on Scoop.it (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxconferences/p/4036534616/2015/02/09/wccs15-2015-ieee-third-world-conference-on-complex-systems) , via CxConferences (http://www.scoop.it/t/cxconferences)

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