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SOCNET  December 2015

SOCNET December 2015

Subject:

selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 21 Dec 2015 10:25:16 -0500

Content-Type:

MULTIPART/MIXED

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (190 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****




   Barry Wellman
  _______________________________________________________________________
   FRSC                     INSNA Founder                  NetLab Network
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED:The New Social Operating System.  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
   MIT Press            http://amzn.to/zXZg39       Print $16  Kindle $11
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 21 Dec 2015 12:03:06 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=69ccf943ec&e=55e25a0e3e



Stigmergy as a Universal Coordination Mechanism I: Definition and Components

    The concept of stigmergy has been used to analyze self-organizing 
activities in an ever-widening range of domains, including social insects, 
robotics, web communities and human society. Yet, it is still poorly 
understood and as such its full power remains underappreciated. The 
present paper clarifies the issue by defining stigmergy as a mechanism of 
indirect coordination in which the trace left by an action in a medium 
stimulates subsequent actions. It then analyses the fundamental concepts 
used in the definition: action, agent, medium, trace and coordination. It 
clarifies how stigmergy enables complex, coordinated activity without any 
need for planning, control, communication, simultaneous presence, or even 
mutual awareness. The resulting self-organization is driven by a 
combination of positive and negative feedbacks, amplifying beneficial 
developments while suppressing errors. Thus, stigmergy is applicable to a 
very broad variety of cases, from chemical reactions to bodily 
coordination and Internet-supported collaboration in Wikipedia.

Stigmergy as a Universal Coordination Mechanism I: Definition and Components
Leslie Marsh, Ted G. Lewis, Francis Heylighen

Cognitive Systems Research

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=29de981824&e=55e25a0e3e  (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d5c42d577c&e=55e25a0e3e) ;

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b91b980ad5&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=bc2a0aaa4b&e=55e25a0e3e)



Stigmergy as a Universal Coordination Mechanism II: Varieties and evolution

    The concept of stigmergy, a mechanism for the coordination of actions via the trace they leave in a medium, can explain self-organizing activities in a broad range of domains, including social insects, collaborative websites, and human institutions. The present paper attempts to bring some order to these diverse applications by classifying varieties of stigmergy according to general aspects: the number of agents involved, the relative persistence or transience of the trace, the use of sematectonic or marker-based traces, and the quantitative or qualitative characteristics of traces. The resulting cases are essentially continuous, as more complex cases can be understood as having evolved out of simpler ones. One application is cognition, which can be viewed as an interiorization of the individual stigmergy that helps an agent to perform a complex project by registering the state of the work in the trace, thus providing an external memory. Another application is the evolution
of cooperation, in which agents learn to profit from the synergy produced by the spontaneous stigmergic coordination between their initially independent actions, thus bypassing the problem of ˙˙free riders˙˙ that exploit the cooperators˙˙ efforts.

Stigmergy as a Universal Coordination Mechanism II: Varieties and evolution
Francis Heylighen

Cognitive Systems Research

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=920555ec86&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b978c60f0f&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=3972798e54&e=55e25a0e3e)



Dynamical criticality: overview and open questions

    In this paper we provide a survey of the most relevant work on 
dynamical criticality, with particular emphasis on the criticality 
hypothesis, which states that systems in a dynamical regime between order 
and chaos have evolutionary advantages with respect to ordered and 
disordered (chaotic) systems. We review the main contributions concerning 
dynamics and information processing at the edge of chaos, and we 
illustrate the main achievements in the detection of critical dynamics in 
biological systems. Finally, we discuss open questions and outlook future 
work.

Dynamical criticality: overview and open questions
Andrea Roli, Marco Villani, Alessandro Filisetti, Roberto Serra

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ae20e708b1&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=4174637381&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=4ac3a039a0&e=55e25a0e3e)



Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade

    The incidence of interstate wars has dropped dramatically over time: The number of wars per pair of countries per year from 1950 to 2000 was roughly a 10th as high as it was from 1820 to 1949. This significant decrease in the frequency of wars correlates with a substantial increase in the number of military alliances per country and the stability of those alliances. We show that one possible explanation of this is an accompanying expansion of international trade. Increased trade decreases countries˙˙ incentives to attack each other and increases their incentives to defend each other, leading to a stable and peaceful network of military and trade alliances that is consistent with observed data.

Networks of military alliances, wars, and international trade
Matthew O. Jackson and Stephen Nei

PNAS 112(50):15277˙˙15284

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=10971cad7b&e=55e25a0e3e  (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=2a9d160be3&e=55e25a0e3e) ;

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b9daccffa4&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=12902d420d&e=55e25a0e3e)


Conflict and Computation on Wikipedia: a Finite-State Machine Analysis of Editor Interactions

    What is the boundary between a vigorous argument and a breakdown of relations? What drives a group of individuals across it? Taking Wikipedia as a test case, we use a hidden Markov model to approximate the computational structure and social grammar of more than a decade of cooperation and conflict among its editors. Across a wide range of pages, we discover a bursty war/peace structure where the systems can become trapped---sometimes for months---in a computational subspace associated with high levels of rapid-fire conflict. Distinct patterns of behavior sustain the low-conflict subspace, including tit-for-tat reversion. While a fraction of the transitions between these subspaces are associated with top-down actions taken by administrators, the effects are weak and of uncertain valence. Surprisingly, we find no statistical signal that transitions are associated with the appearance of particularly anti-social users, and only weak association with significant news events
outside the system. The majority of transitions between high and low conflict states appear to be driven by decentralized processes with no clear locus of control. Our results show how, in a modern sociotechnical system, memory of conflict is delocalized, and conflict management is a bottom-up process. It suggests that policy-makers may be limited in their ability to manage conflict, and that bad actors and exogenous shocks are less effective in causing conflict than is generally believed.

Conflict and Computation on Wikipedia: a Finite-State Machine Analysis of Editor Interactions
Simon DeDeo

http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=30eeba8ef8&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=2a6dfaba31&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b9ab25e68c&e=55e25a0e3e)


Complex networks as an emerging property of hierarchical preferential attachment

    Real complex systems are not rigidly structured; no clear rules or 
blueprints exist for their construction. Yet, amidst their apparent 
randomness, complex structural properties universally emerge. We propose 
that an important class of complex systems can be modeled as an 
organization of many embedded levels (potentially infinite in number), all 
of them following the same universal growth principle known as 
preferential attachment. We give examples of such hierarchy in real 
systems, for instance, in the pyramid of production entities of the film 
industry. More importantly, we show how real complex networks can be 
interpreted as a projection of our model, from which their scale 
independence, their clustering, their hierarchy, their fractality, and 
their navigability naturally emerge. Our results suggest that complex 
networks, viewed as growing systems, can be quite simple, and that the 
apparent complexity of their structure is largely a reflection of their 
unobserved hierarchical nature.

Complex networks as an emerging property of hierarchical preferential 
attachment Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Edward Laurence, Antoine Allard, 
Jean-Gabriel Young, and Louis J. Dubé Phys. Rev. E 92, 062809

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ef40cb3e78&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=c5f68a7176&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=c2999dc25b&e=55e25a0e3e)



Exploring temporal networks with greedy walks

    Temporal networks come with a wide variety of heterogeneities, from 
burstiness of event sequences to correlations between timings of node and 
link activations. In this paper, we set to explore the latter by using 
temporal greedy walks as probes of temporal network structure. Given a 
temporal network (a sequence of contacts), temporal greedy walks proceed 
from node to node by always following the first available contact. Because 
of this, their structure is particularly sensitive to temporal-topological 
patterns involving repeated contacts between sets of nodes. This becomes 
evident in their small coverage per step taken as compared to a temporal 
reference model ˙˙ in empirical temporal networks, greedy walks often get 
stuck within small sets of nodes because of correlated contact patterns. 
While this may also happen in static networks that have pronounced 
community structure, the use of the temporal reference model takes the 
underlying static network structure out of the equation and indicates that 
there is a purely temporal reason for the observations. Further analysis 
of the structure of greedy walks indicates that burst trains, sequences of 
repeated contacts between node pairs, are the dominant factor. However, 
there are larger patterns too, as shown with non-backtracking greedy 
walks. We proceed further to study the entropy rates of greedy walks, and 
show that the sequences of visited nodes are more structured and 
predictable in original data as compared to temporally uncorrelated 
references. Taken together, these results indicate a richness of 
correlated temporal-topological patterns in temporal networks.

Exploring temporal networks with greedy walks
Jari Saramäki and Petter Holme

Eur. Phys. J. B (2015) 88: 334
http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d095ab056f&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=79b10e3261&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=f5ed1b9c20&e=55e25a0e3e)




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