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SOCNET  February 2016

SOCNET February 2016

Subject:

selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 11:30:20 -0500

Content-Type:

MULTIPART/MIXED

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (264 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

selected

   Barry Wellman
    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
                  Streisand/Sondheim
  _______________________________________________________________________
   Visiting Prof         Schl of Information        University of Arizona
   NetLab Network                 FRSC                      INSNA Founder
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED:The New Social Operating System   Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
   MIT Press            http://amzn.to/zXZg39       Print $18  Kindle $11
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 15 Feb 2016 12:03:39 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=1dc5426f90&e=55e25a0e3e


The happiness paradox: your friends are happier than you

    Most individuals in social networks experience a so-called Friendship 
Paradox: they are less popular than their friends on average. This effect 
may explain recent findings that widespread social network media use leads 
to reduced happiness. However the relation between popularity and 
happiness is poorly understood. A Friendship paradox does not necessarily 
imply a Happiness paradox where most individuals are less happy than their 
friends. Here we report the first direct observation of a significant 
Happiness Paradox in a large-scale online social network of 39,110 Twitter 
users. Our results reveal that popular individuals are indeed happier and 
that a majority of individuals experience a significant Happiness paradox. 
The magnitude of the latter effect is shaped by complex interactions 
between individual popularity, happiness, and the fact that users cluster 
assortatively by level of happiness. Our results indicate that the 
topology of online social networks and the distribution of happiness in 
some populations can cause widespread psycho-social effects that affect 
the well-being of billions of individuals.

The happiness paradox: your friends are happier than you
Johan Bollen, Bruno Gonšalves, Ingrid van de Leemput, Guangchen Ruan

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=4b09bd4da9&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d1fbd641aa&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=2a94d807c5&e=55e25a0e3e)

Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies

    The prevalence of cooperation among human societies is a puzzle that 
has caught the eye of researchers from multiple fields. Why is that people 
are selfless and often incur costs to aid others? Reputations are 
intimately linked with the answer to this question, and so are the social 
norms that dictate what is reckoned as a good or a bad action. Here we 
present a mathematical framework to analyze the relationship between 
different social norms and the sustainability of cooperation, in 
populations of arbitrary sizes. Indeed, it is known that cooperation, 
norms, reciprocity and the art of managing reputations, are features that 
go along with humans from their pre-historic existence in small-scale 
societies to the contemporary times, when technology supports the 
interaction with a large number of people. We show that population size is 
relevant when evaluating the merits of each social norm and conclude that 
there is a social norm especially effective in leveraging cooperation in 
small populations. That simple norm dictates that only whoever cooperates 
with good individuals, and defects against bad ones, deserves a good 
reputation.

Santos FP, Santos FC, Pacheco JM (2016) Social Norms of Cooperation in Small-Scale Societies. PLoS Comput Biol 12(1): e1004709. http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=f483a5c224&e=55e25a0e3e
Complexity Digest's insight:

Tit-for-tat leads to good reputation in small societies.

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=4461c151b4&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=c1f4267348&e=55e25a0e3e)



The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter-gatherer residential mobility

    Residential mobility is deeply entangled with all aspects of 
hunter-gatherer life ways, and is therefore an issue of central importance 
in hunter-gatherer studies. Hunter-gatherers vary widely in annual rates 
of residential mobility, and understanding the sources of this variation 
has long been of interest to anthropologists and archaeologists. Since 
mobility is, to a large extent, driven by the need for a continuous supply 
of food, a natural framework for addressing this question is provided by 
the metabolic theory of ecology. This provides a powerful framework for 
formulating formal testable hypotheses concerning evolutionary and 
ecological constraints on the scale and variation of hunter-gatherer 
residential mobility. We evaluate these predictions using extant data and 
show strong support for the hypotheses. We show that the overall scale of 
hunter-gatherer residential mobility is predicted by average human body 
size, and the limited capacity of mobile hunter-gatherers to store energy 
internally. We then show that the majority of variation in residential 
mobility observed across cultures is predicted by energy availability in 
local ecosystems. Our results demonstrate that large-scale evolutionary 
and ecological processes, common to all plants and animals, constrain 
hunter-gatherers in predictable ways as they move through territories to 
effectively exploit resources over the course of a year. Moreover, our 
results extend the scope of the metabolic theory of ecology by showing how 
it successfully predicts variation in the behavioral ecology of 
populations within a species.

The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter-gatherer residential mobility
Marcus J. Hamilton, Jose Lobo, Eric Rupley, Hyejin Youn, Geoffrey B. West

http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d5b813a6db&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=8bf5de871a&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=5f71277ab4&e=55e25a0e3e)



Describing People as Particles Isn  t Always a Bad Idea

    Infomercialist and pop psychologist Barbara De Angelis puts it this 
way:   Love is a force more formidable than any other.   Whether you agree 
with her or not, De Angelis is doing something we do all the time  she is 
using the language of physics to describe social phenomena.

  I was irresistibly attracted to him  ;   You can  t force me  ;   We recognize the force of public opinion  ;   I  m repelled by these policies.   We can  t measure any of these   social forces   in the way that we can measure gravity or magnetic force. But not only has physics-based thinking entered our language, it is also at the heart of many of our most important models of social behavior, from economics to psychology. The question is, do we want it there?

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6e826caefe&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=71b43c2667&e=55e25a0e3e)

[BW: "Informercialist"??? LOL]

The chips are down for Moore  s law

    Next month, the worldwide semiconductor industry will formally 
acknowledge what has become increasingly obvious to everyone involved: 
Moore's law, the principle that has powered the information-technology 
revolution since the 1960s, is nearing its end. A rule of thumb that has 
come to dominate computing, Moore's law states that the number of 
transistors on a microprocessor chip will double every two years or so    
which has generally meant that the chip's performance will, too. The 
exponential improvement that the law describes transformed the first crude 
home computers of the 1970s into the sophisticated machines of the 1980s 
and 1990s, and from there gave rise to high-speed Internet, smartphones 
and the wired-up cars, refrigerators and thermostats that are becoming 
prevalent today.

The chips are down for Moore  s law
M. Mitchell Waldrop

Nature 530, 144  147 (11 February 2016) http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=dd6e031655&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6f7a6779e1&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=426e400a03&e=55e25a0e3e)


Evaluating the impact of interdisciplinary research: a multilayer network approach

    Nowadays, scientific challenges usually require approaches that cross 
traditional boundaries between academic disciplines, driving many 
researchers towards interdisciplinarity. Despite its obvious importance, 
there is a lack of studies on how to quantify the influence of 
interdisciplinarity on the research impact, posing uncertainty in a proper 
evaluation for hiring and funding purposes. Here we propose a method based 
on the analysis of bipartite interconnected multilayer networks of 
citations and disciplines, to assess scholars, institutions and countries 
interdisciplinary importance. Using data about physics publications and US 
patents, we show that our method allows to reveal, using a quantitative 
approach, that being more interdisciplinary causes -- in the Granger sense 
-- benefits in scientific productivity and impact. The proposed method 
could be used by funding agencies, universities and scientific policy 
decision makers for hiring and funding purposes, and to complement 
existing methods to rank universities and countries.

Evaluating the impact of interdisciplinary research: a multilayer network approach
Elisa Omodei, Manlio De Domenico, Alex Arenas

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=13bca1bd70&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b36dc99d49&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=150c976774&e=55e25a0e3e)


Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem 
from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations 
are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations 
diffuse through a network of more than 50 000 elites and examine how 
connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find the 
diffusion of donations to be driven by independent reinforcement 
contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from 
different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors 
from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may 
increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, 
simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. 
Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign 
predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We 
theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local 
observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly 
opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest 
that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political 
campaigns should target multiple communities.

Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations
V.A. Traag

http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ec406865a3&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=2f99d82bd1&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=1f81ade605&e=55e25a0e3e)



Introduction to Focus Issue: The 25th Anniversary of Chaos: Perspectives on Nonlinear Science  Past, Present, and Future

    The first issue of Chaos, published in July of 1991, comprised a 
selection of 14 now-classic papers authored by leading researchers in 
nonlinear dynamics.1  14 While some of their distinguished 
authors  including Vladimir Arnold, Boris Chirikov, and George 
Zaslavsky  are no longer with us, many of the contributors to the first 
issue remain active in research and some  Irving Epstein and Leon 
Glass  are in fact authors of papers in this 25th anniversary issue.

Introduction to Focus Issue: The 25th Anniversary of Chaos: Perspectives on Nonlinear Science  Past, Present, and Future
Elizabeth Bradley, Adilson E. Motter and Louis M. Pecora

Chaos 25, 097501 (2015); http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=590aebe59c&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=2cee9bf0c7&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=be20e55d86&e=55e25a0e3e)



How a Swedish Hit Factory Took Over Your Playlist

    If you  ve ever wondered why so many popular songs you hear these days 
have a similar feel, there  s a simple reason: We  re importing them by 
the score as they roll off one particularly well-run assembly line. As 
John Seabrook, author of The Song Machine: Inside the Hit Factory, 
explains, a handful of producers, led by the late Denniz Pop and his 
protÚgÚe, Max Martin, revolutionized the whole songwriting process, 
developing an almost industrialized method that allowed them to crank out 
hit after hit with almost uncanny precision.

Complexity Digest's insight:

This is an interesting example of how innovation can flourish in a complex ecosystem with a high degree of individual specialization and global coordination. Moreover, it has analogies with innovation in biological evolution.

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=042c9fca22&e=55e25a0e3e) , via CxBooks (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=44386cd464&e=55e25a0e3e)



Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=42497f5c54&e=55e25a0e3e ) and using the "Suggest" button.
==============================================
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