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SOCNET  May 2016

SOCNET May 2016

Subject:

selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 30 May 2016 09:39:45 -0400

Content-Type:

MULTIPART/MIXED

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (290 lines)

***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org *****

fyi. curated by

   Barry Wellman

    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
                  Streisand/Sondheim
  _______________________________________________________________________
   NetLab Network FRSC INSNA Founder
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
                        http://amzn.to/zXZg39
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 30 May 2016 11:02:35 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=0592af3798&e=55e25a0e3e



Matching markets in the digital age

    Recent advances in information technology are enabling new markets and
revolutionizing many existing markets. For example, taxicabs used to find
passengers through chance drive-bys or slow central dispatching (see the
photo). Location tracking, computer navigation, and dynamic pricing now
enable ride-sharing services such as Uber to offer low and consistent
delay times of only a few minutes. In a recent study, Cramer and Krueger
(1) show that ride-sharing has dramatically increased the usage of drivers
and their cars, cutting costs for riders. The results highlight the
opportunities provided by digital markets. Further efficiency gains may
come from academia-industry collaborations, which could also help to
ensure that the markets develop in ways that further the public interest.


˙˙Matching markets in the digital age
Eduardo M. Azevedo, E. Glen Weyl

Science 27 May 2016:
Vol. 352, Issue 6289, pp. 1056-1057
http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=a6c465d9a2&e=55e25a0e3e

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Government ˙˙nudges˙˙ prove their worth

    Over the past 5 years, on behalf of state governments, nearly 100,000
Americans were gently manipulated by a team of social scientists. In 15
randomized, controlled trials, people in need of social services either
encountered the standard application process or received a psychological
nudge, in which the information was presented slightly differently˙˙a
postcard reminded them of deadlines, for example, or one choice was made
easier than another. In 11 of the trials, the nudge modestly increased a
person's response rate or influenced them to make financially smarter
choices. The results, presented this week at a meeting in Chicago, add to
the growing evidence that nudges developed by psychologists can make a
real difference in the success of government programs.


Government ˙˙nudges˙˙ prove their worth
John Bohannon
Science 27 May 2016:
Vol. 352, Issue 6289, pp. 1042
http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b53e57adb7&e=55e25a0e3e

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Gender homophily in online dyadic and triadic relationships

    Gender homophily, or the preference for interaction with individuals of
the same gender, has been observed in many contexts, especially during
childhood and adolescence. In this study we investigate such phenomenon by
analyzing the interactions of the ˙˙10 million users of Tuenti, a Spanish
social networking service popular among teenagers. In dyadic relationships
we find evidence of higher gender homophily for women. We also observe a
preference of users with more friends to connect to the opposite gender. A
particularly marked gender difference emerges in signing up for the social
networking service and adding the first friends, and in the interactions
by means of wall messages. In these contexts we find evidence of a strong
homophily for women, and little or no homophily for men. By examining the
gender composition of triangle motifs, we observe a marked tendency of
users to group into gender homogeneous clusters, with a particularly high
number of male-only triangles. We show that age plays an important role in
this context, with a tendency to higher homophily for young teenagers in
both dyadic and triadic relationships. Our findings have implications for
addressing gender gap issues, understanding adolescent online behavior and
technology adoption, and modeling social networks.


Gender homophily in online dyadic and triadic relationships
David Laniado˙˙, Yana Volkovich, Karolin Kappler and Andreas Kaltenbrunner

EPJ Data Science20165:19
http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=3a4e4723d7&e=55e25a0e3e

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The Real Secret of Youth Is Complexity

    Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity!˙˙ Henry David Thoreau exhorted in
his 1854 memoir Walden, in which he extolled the virtues of a
˙˙Spartan-like˙˙ life. Saint Thomas Aquinas preached that simplicity
brings one closer to God. Isaac Newton believed it leads to truth. The
process of simplification, we˙˙re told, can illuminate beauty, strip away
needless clutter and stress, and help us focus on what really matters.

It can also be a sign of aging. Youthful health and vigor depend, in many
ways, on complexity. Bones get strength from elaborate scaffolds of
connective tissue. Mental acuity arises from interconnected webs of
neurons. Even seemingly simple bodily functions like heartbeat rely on
interacting networks of metabolic controls, signaling pathways, genetic
switches, and circadian rhythms. As our bodies age, these anatomic
structures and physiologic processes lose complexity, making them less
resilient and ultimately leading to frailty and disease.

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A Schrödinger cat living in two boxes

    The story of Schrödinger's cat being hidden away in a box and being
both dead and alive is often invoked to illustrate the how peculiar the
quantum world can be. On a twist of the dead/alive behavior, Wang et al.
now show that the cat can be in two separate locations at the same time.
Constructing their cat from coherent microwave photons, they show that the
state of the ˙˙electromagnetic cat˙˙ can be shared by two separated
cavities. Going beyond common-sense absurdities of the classical world,
the ability to share quantum states in different locations could be a
powerful resource for quantum information processing.

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ce9c8ba747&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=66f5552f38&e=55e25a0e3e)



Poverty linked to epigenetic changes and mental illness

    Impoverished adolescents acquire DNA marks, brain changes and depression over time.

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=069ecac64c&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=1aa2489318&e=55e25a0e3e)



Cooperation, competition and the emergence of criticality in communities of adaptive systems

    The hypothesis that living systems can benefit from operating at the vicinity of critical points has gained momentum in recent years. Criticality may confer an optimal balance between too ordered and exceedingly noisy states. Here we present a model, based on information theory and statistical mechanics, illustrating how and why a community of agents aimed at understanding and communicating with each other converges to a globally coherent state in which all individuals are close to an internal critical state, i.e. at the borderline between order and disorder. We study˙˙both analytically and computationally˙˙the circumstances under which criticality is the best possible outcome of the dynamical process, confirming the convergence to critical points under very generic conditions. Finally, we analyze the effect of cooperation (agents trying to enhance not only their fitness, but also that of other individuals) and competition (agents trying to improve their own fitness and to
diminish those of competitors) within our setting. The conclusion is that, while competition fosters criticality, cooperation hinders it and can lead to more ordered or more disordered consensual outcomes.

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=dc947bf15a&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=41b57dacf8&e=55e25a0e3e)




Information encryption in the expert management of strategic uncertainty

    Strategic agents in incomplete-information environments have a
conflicted relationship with uncertainty: it can keep them unpredictable
to their opponents, but it must also be overcome to predict the actions of
those opponents. We use a multivariate generalization of information
theory to characterize the information processing behavior of strategic
reasoning experts. We compare expert and novice poker players --- "sharks"
and "fish" --- over 1.75 million hands of online two-player No-Limit Texas
Hold'em (NLHE). Comparing the effects of privately known and publicly
signaled information on wagering behavior, we find that the behavior of
sharks coheres with information that emerges only from the interaction of
public and private sources --- "synergistic" information that does not
exist in either source alone. This implies that the effect of public
information on shark behavior is better encrypted: it cannot be
reconstructed without access to the hidden state of private cards.
Integrative information processing affects not only one's own strategic
behavior, but the ability of others to predict it. By characterizing the
informational structure of complex strategic interactions, we offer a
detailed account of how experts extract, process, and conceal valuable
information in high-uncertainty, high-stakes competitive environments.


Information encryption in the expert management of strategic uncertainty

Seth Frey, Paul L. Williams, Dominic K. Albino

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=8cb4eac22e&e=55e25a0e3e

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Simulating the interaction of road users: A glance to complexity of Venezuelan traffic

    Automotive traffic is a classical example of a complex system, being
the simplest case the homogeneous traffic where all vehicles are of the
same kind, and using different means of transportation increases
complexity due to different driving rules and interactions between each
vehicle type. In particular, when motorcyclists drive in between the lanes
of stopped or slow-moving vehicles. This later driving mode is a
Venezuelan pervasive practice of mobilization that clearly jeopardizes
road safety. We developed a minimalist agent-based model to analyze the
interaction of road users with and without motorcyclists on the way. The
presence of motorcyclists dwindles significantly the frequency of lane
changes of motorists while increasing their frequency of
acceleration-deceleration maneuvers, without significantly affecting their
average speed. That is, motorcyclist "corralled" motorists in their lanes
limiting their ability to maneuver and increasing their acceleration
noise. Comparison of the simulations with real traffic videos shows good
agreement between model and observation. The implications of these results
regarding road safety concerns about the interaction between motorists and
motorcyclists are discussed.


Simulating the interaction of road users: A glance to complexity of Venezuelan traffic
Juan C. Correa, Mario I. Caicedo, Ana L. C. Bazzan, Klaus Jaffe

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=89151612ba&e=55e25a0e3e

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Social and Spatial Clustering of People at Humanity's Largest Gathering

    Macroscopic behavior of scientific and societal systems results from
the aggregation of microscopic behaviors of their constituent elements,
but connecting the macroscopic with the microscopic in human behavior has
traditionally been difficult. Manifestations of homophily, the notion that
individuals tend to interact with others who resemble them, have been
observed in many small and intermediate size settings. However, whether
this behavior translates to truly macroscopic levels, and what its
consequences may be, remains unknown. Here, we use call detail records
(CDRs) to examine the population dynamics and manifestations of social and
spatial homophily at a macroscopic level among the residents of 23 states
of India at the Kumbh Mela, a 3-month-long Hindu festival. We estimate
that the festival was attended by 61 million people, making it the largest
gathering in the history of humanity. While we find strong overall
evidence for both types of homophily for residents of different states,
participants from low-representation states show considerably stronger
propensity for both social and spatial homophily than those from
high-representation states. These manifestations of homophily are
amplified on crowded days, such as the peak day of the festival, which we
estimate was attended by 25 million people. Our findings confirm that
homophily, which here likely arises from social influence, permeates all
scales of human behavior.


Social and Spatial Clustering of People at Humanity's Largest Gathering
Ian Barnett, Tarun Khanna, Jukka-Pekka Onnela

http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ba7ca1ae40&e=55e25a0e3e

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Postdoc in the area of Computational Social Science @ETH Zürich

    Research subjects of particular interest are: agent-based, multi-level, and/or evolutionary game theoretical models of social processes; artificial societies; social technologies; real-time measurement of socio-economic activities; measurement of social capital; methods and technologies to create collective awareness; reputation and incentive systems; innovative financial and socio-economic systems; qualified money; Blockchain technologies; sharing economy; Virtual Reality; collective intelligence; digital societies; resilient societies; ethical and value-sensitive ICT; responsible innovation; design for emergence and values. Candidates should have an interest in supporting the visions and goals of the FuturICT and Nervousnet projects (see nervousnet.info, www.futurict.eu (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=80aa09fc43&e=55e25a0e3e) and the related facebook, twitter and vimeo pages).


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==============================================
Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=1cb48b8426&e=55e25a0e3e ) and using the "Suggest" button.
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