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SOCNET  August 2016

SOCNET August 2016

Subject:

Selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Tue, 23 Aug 2016 01:27:53 -0400

Content-Type:

MULTIPART/MIXED

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (148 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

fyi

   Barry Wellman

    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
                  Streisand/Sondheim
  _______________________________________________________________________
   NetLab Network                 FRSC                      INSNA Founder
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
                        http://amzn.to/zXZg39
   _______________________________________________________________________


Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=15470d1dd5&e=55e25a0e3e



Introduction to Focus Issue: Complex Dynamics in Networks, Multilayered Structures and Systems

    In the last years, network scientists have directed their interest to the multi-layer character of real-world systems, and explicitly considered the structural and dynamical organization of graphs made of diverse layers between its constituents. Most complex systems include multiple subsystems and layers of connectivity and, in many cases, the interdependent components of systems interact through many different channels. Such a new perspective is indeed found to be the adequate representation for a wealth of features exhibited by networked systems in the real world. The contributions presented in this Focus Issue cover, from different points of view, the many achievements and still open questions in the field of multi-layer networks, such as: new frameworks and structures to represent and analyze heterogeneous complex systems, different aspects related to synchronization and centrality of complex networks, interplay between layers, and applications to logistic, biological,
social, and technological fields.


Introduction to Focus Issue: Complex Dynamics in Networks, Multilayered Structures and Systems
Stefano Boccaletti, Regino Criado, Miguel Romance and Joaquín J. Torres

Chaos 26, 065101 (2016); http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d8c64afe4c&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=0bb86d306a&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=48c36364e8&e=55e25a0e3e)


The new challenges of multiplex networks: measures and models

    What do societies, the Internet, and the human brain have in common? The immediate answer might be "not that much", but in reality they are all examples of complex relational systems, whose emerging behaviours are largely determined by the non-trivial networks of interactions among their constituents, namely individuals, computers, or neurons. In the last two decades, network scientists have proposed models of increasing complexity to better understand real-world systems. Only recently we have realised that multiplexity, i.e. the coexistence of several types of interactions among the constituents of a complex system, is responsible for substantial qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and variety of behaviours that a complex system can exhibit. As a consequence, multilayer and multiplex networks have become a hot topic in complexity science. Here we provide an overview of some of the measures proposed so far to characterise the structure of multiplex networks,
and a selection of models aiming at reproducing those structural properties and at quantifying their statistical significance. Focusing on a subset of relevant topics, this brief review is a quite comprehensive introduction to the most basic tools for the analysis of multiplex networks observed in the real-world. The wide applicability of multiplex networks as a framework to model complex systems in different fields, from biology to social sciences, and the colloquial tone of the paper will make it an interesting read for researchers working on both theoretical and experimental analysis of networked systems.


The new challenges of multiplex networks: measures and models
Federico Battiston, Vincenzo Nicosia, Vito Latora

http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=679111f86e&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=e5e9a6db2d&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=290f950eb1&e=55e25a0e3e)


The fundamental advantages of temporal networks

    Despite the traditional focus of network science on static networks, most networked systems of scientific interest are characterized by temporal links. By disrupting the paths, link temporality has been shown to frustrate many dynamical processes on networks, from information spreading to accessibility. Considering the ubiquity of temporal networks in nature, we must ask: Are there any advantages of the networks' temporality? Here we develop an analytical framework to explore the control properties of temporal networks, arriving at the counterintuitive conclusion that temporal networks, compared to their static (i.e. aggregated) counterparts, reach controllability faster, demand orders of magnitude less control energy, and the control trajectories, through which the system reaches its final states, are significantly more compact than those characterizing their static counterparts. The combination of analytical, numerical and empirical results demonstrates that temporality
ensures a degree of flexibility that would be unattainable in static networks, significantly enhancing our ability to control them.


The fundamental advantages of temporal networks
Aming Li, Sean P. Cornelius, Yang-Yu Liu, Long Wang, Albert-László Barabási

http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=55d227d342&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=8d4c9906ab&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=045cdabcb6&e=55e25a0e3e)



Net SCI X 2017

    The central winter conference on Network Science, NetSci-X, is coming to the hub of innovation ˙˙ Tel-Aviv. Bringing together leading researchers and innovators to connect, meet and establish interdisciplinary channels for collaboration. From biological and environmental networks, to social, technological and economic networks, NetSci-X 2017 links the vibrant Tel-Aviv spirit with the fresh outlook of Network Science.
Conference - NetSci-X-2017 will be held on January 16-8, 2017 at Hilton Tel-Aviv.
School ˙˙ The conference will be preceded by a one day School - January 15, 2017 at the Porter hall, Tel-Aviv University.


http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=21dfc3ef23&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=3a9caac88d&e=55e25a0e3e) , via CxConferences (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=1ccf83430c&e=55e25a0e3e)


State power and elite autonomy: The board interlock network of Chinese non-profits

    In response to failures of central planning, the Chinese government has experimented not only with free-market trade zones, but with allowing non-profit foundations to operate in a decentralized fashion. A network study shows how these foundations have connected together by sharing board members, in a structural parallel to what is seen in corporations in the United States. This board interlock leads to the emergence of an elite group with privileged network positions. While the presence of government officials on non-profit boards is widespread, state officials are much less common in a subgroup of foundations that control just over half of all revenue in the network. This subgroup, associated with business elites, not only enjoys higher levels of within-elite links, but even preferentially excludes government officials from the nodes with higher degree. The emergence of this structurally autonomous sphere is associated with major political and social events in the
state-society relationship.


State power and elite autonomy: The board interlock network of Chinese non-profits
Ji Ma, Simon DeDeo

http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=801f89fce2&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=76fd53d751&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=43896f41e6&e=55e25a0e3e)


Perspectives on Multi-Level Dynamics

    As Physics did in previous centuries, there is currently a common dream of extracting generic laws of nature in economics, sociology, neuroscience, by focalising the description of phenomena to a minimal set of variables and parameters, linked together by causal equations of evolution whose structure may reveal hidden principles. This requires a huge reduction of dimensionality (number of degrees of freedom) and a change in the level of description. Beyond the mere necessity of developing accurate techniques affording this reduction, there is the question of the correspondence between the initial system and the reduced one. In this paper, we offer a perspective towards a common framework for discussing and understanding multi-level systems exhibiting structures at various spatial and temporal levels. We propose a common foundation and illustrate it with examples from different fields. We also point out the difficulties in constructing such a general setting and its
limitations.


Perspectives on Multi-Level Dynamics
Fatihcan M. Atay, Sven Banisch, Philippe Blanchard, Bruno Cessac, Eckehard Olbrich

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=00c0a96fd4&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=0fbf482e6c&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=c79478f570&e=55e25a0e3e)



Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension (by Samuel Arbesman)

    Why did the New York Stock Exchange suspend trading without warning on July 8, 2015? Why did certain Toyota vehicles accelerate uncontrollably against the will of their drivers? Why does the programming inside our airplanes occasionally surprise its creators?
After a thorough analysis by the top experts, the answers still elude us.
You don˙˙t understand the software running your car or your iPhone. But here˙˙s a secret: neither do the geniuses at Apple or the Ph.D.˙˙s at Toyota˙˙not perfectly, anyway. No one, not lawyers, doctors, accountants, or policy makers, fully grasps the rules governing your tax return, your retirement account, or your hospital˙˙s medical machinery. The same technological advances that have simplified our lives have made the systems governing our lives incomprehensible, unpredictable, and overcomplicated.
In Overcomplicated, complexity scientist Samuel Arbesman offers a fresh, insightful field guide to living with complex technologies that defy human comprehension. As technology grows more complex, Arbesman argues, its behavior mimics the vagaries of the natural world more than it conforms to a mathematical model. If we are to survive and thrive in this new age, we must abandon our need for governing principles and rules and accept the chaos. By embracing and observing the freak accidents and flukes that disrupt our lives, we can gain valuable clues about how our algorithms really work. What˙˙s more, we will become better thinkers, scientists, and innovators as a result.

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=29a099ec30&e=55e25a0e3e) , via CxBooks (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b45f75eca9&e=55e25a0e3e)

The Braess Paradox in a network of totally asymmetric exclusion processes

    We study the Braess paradox in the transport network as originally proposed by Braess with totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEPs) on the edges. The Braess paradox describes the counterintuitive situation where adding an additional edge to a road network leads to a user optimum with higher traveltimes for all network users. Traveltimes on the TASEPs are nonlinear in the density and jammed states can occur due to the microscopic exclusion principle. Furthermore the individual edges influence each other. This leads to a much more realistic description of traffic-like transport on the network than in previously studied linear macroscopic mathematical models. Furthermore the stochastic dynamics allows to explore the effects of fluctuations on the network performance. We observe that for low densities the added edge leads to lower traveltimes. For slightly higher densities the Braess paradox in its classical sense occurs in a small density regime. In a large regime of
intermediate densities strong fluctuations in the traveltimes dominate the system's behaviour. These fluctuations are due to links that are in a domain wall or coexistence phase. At high densities the added link leads to lower traveltimes. We present a phase diagram predicting in which state the system will be, depending on the global density and crucial length ratios.


The Braess Paradox in a network of totally asymmetric exclusion processes
Stefan Bittihn, Andreas Schadschneider

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d384fc9164&e=55e25a0e3e

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The Hidden Danger of Big Data

    With big data, we can multiply our options and filter out things we don˙˙t want to see. But there is much to be said for making discoveries through pure serendipity: contingency and randomness often furnish the transformational or counterintuitive ideas that propel humanity forward.


The Hidden Danger of Big Data

Carlo Ratti & Dirk Helbing

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=1f7a78bbff&e=55e25a0e3e

See it on Scoop.it (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6a62aa0cb9&e=55e25a0e3e) , via Papers (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6fe66665a1&e=55e25a0e3e)

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