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SOCNET  August 2016

SOCNET August 2016

Subject:

Selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 8 Aug 2016 08:09:42 -0400

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*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

fyi

   Barry Wellman

    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
                  Streisand/Sondheim
  _______________________________________________________________________
   NetLab Network                 FRSC                      INSNA Founder
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
                        http://amzn.to/zXZg39
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 8 Aug 2016 11:04:12 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=7de0dd41d8&e=55e25a0e3e

Models and people: An alternative view of the emergent properties of computational models

    Computer models can help humans gain insight into the functioning of complex systems. Used for training, they can also help gain insight into the cognitive processes humans use to understand these systems. By influencing humans understanding (and consequent actions) computer models can thus generate an impact on both these actors and the very systems they are designed to simulate. When these systems also include humans, a number of self-referential relations thus emerge which can lead to very complex dynamics. This is particularly true when we explicitly acknowledge and model the existence of multiple conflicting representations of reality among different individuals. Given the increasing availability of computational devices, the use of computer models to support individual and shared decision making could potentially have implications far wider than the ones often discussed within the Information and Communication Technologies community in terms of computational power and
network communication. We discuss some theoretical implications and describe some initial numerical simulations.


Models and people: An alternative view of the emergent properties of computational models
Fabio Boschetti

Complexity

Volume 21, Issue 6
July/August 2016
Pages 202˙˙213

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=85056ad794&e=55e25a0e3e

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The Memory of Science: Inflation, Myopia, and the Knowledge Network

    Science is a growing system, exhibiting ~4% annual growth in publications and ~1.8% annual growth in the number of references per publication. Combined these trends correspond to a 12-year doubling period in the total supply of references, thereby challenging traditional methods of evaluating scientific production, from researchers to institutions. Against this background, we analyzed a citation network comprised of 837 million references produced by 32.6 million publications over the period 1965-2012, allowing for a temporal analysis of the `attention economy' in science. Unlike previous studies, we analyzed the entire probability distribution of reference ages - the time difference between a citing and cited paper - thereby capturing previously overlooked trends. Over this half-century period we observe a narrowing range of attention - both classic and recent literature are being cited increasingly less, pointing to the important role of socio-technical processes. To better
understand the impact of exponential growth on the underlying knowledge network we develop a network-based model, featuring the redirection of scientific attention via publications' reference lists, and validate the model against several empirical benchmarks. We then use the model to test the causal impact of real paradigm shifts, thereby providing guidance for science policy analysis. In particular, we show how perturbations to the growth rate of scientific output affects the reference age distribution and the functionality of the vast science citation network as an aid for the search & retrieval of knowledge. In order to account for the inflation of science, our study points to the need for a systemic overhaul of the counting methods used to evaluate citation impact - especially in the case of evaluating science careers, which can span several decades and thus several doubling periods.


The Memory of Science: Inflation, Myopia, and the Knowledge Network
Raj K. Pan, Alexander M. Petersen, Fabio Pammolli, Santo Fortunato

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=23ab9c9c3e&e=55e25a0e3e

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Visualizing the ˙˙heartbeat˙˙ of a city with tweets

    Describing the dynamics of a city is a crucial step to both 
understanding the human activity in urban environments and to planning and 
designing cities accordingly. Here, we describe the collective dynamics of 
New York City (NYC) and surrounding areas as seen through the lens of 
Twitter usage. In particular, we observe and quantify the patterns that 
emerge naturally from the hourly activities in different areas of NYC, and 
discuss how they can be used to understand the urban areas. Using a 
dataset that includes more than 6 million geolocated Twitter messages we 
construct a movie of the geographic density of tweets. We observe the 
diurnal ˙˙heartbeat˙˙ of the NYC area. The largest scale dynamics are the 
waking and sleeping cycle and commuting from residential communities to 
office areas in Manhattan. Hourly dynamics reflect the interplay of 
commuting, work and leisure, including whether people are preoccupied with 
other activities or actively using Twitter. Differences between weekday 
and weekend dynamics point to changes in when people wake and sleep, and 
engage in social activities. We show that by measuring the average 
distances to a central location one can quantify the weekly differences 
and the shift in behavior during weekends. We also identify locations and 
times of high Twitter activity that occur because of specific activities. 
These include early morning high levels of traffic as people arrive and 
wait at air transportation hubs, and on Sunday at the Meadowlands Sports 
Complex and Statue of Liberty. We analyze the role of particular 
individuals where they have large impacts on overall Twitter activity. Our 
analysis points to the opportunity to develop insight into both geographic 
social dynamics and attention through social media analysis.


Visualizing the ˙˙heartbeat˙˙ of a city with tweets
Urbano França, ˙˙˙˙˙˙Hiroki Sayama, ˙˙˙˙˙˙Colin Mcswiggen, Roozbeh Daneshvar, ˙˙˙˙˙˙Yaneer Bar-Yam

Complexity

Volume 21, Issue 6
July/August 2016
Pages 280˙˙287

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=8581c43299&e=55e25a0e3e

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One to Many: Opportunities to Understanding Collective Behaviors in Urban Environments Through Individual˙˙s Passively-Collected Locative Data

    Walkable cities are of increased interest for urban planners and active 
transportation professionals, where a greater understanding of pedestrian 
behaviors is needed. This presentation discusses an approach for measuring 
spatiotemporal macro-behaviors of walking activity in urban environments 
using anonymized, individual, locative, passively-collected data recorded 
by popular physical activity mobile applications. With this data, we 
explore the characteristics of aggregated pedestrian activity within the 
physical and social milieu of the city at scale, with temporal detail, and 
in consideration of the infrastructural and urban characteristics 
influencing individual activity.


One to Many: Opportunities to Understanding Collective Behaviors in Urban Environments Through Individual˙˙s Passively-Collected Locative Data
Anthony Vanky, Theodore Courtney, Santosh Verma, Carlo Ratti

Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions
Volume 9749 of the series Lecture Notes in Computer Science pp 482-493

http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=7f4d7e9023&e=55e25a0e3e

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The Evolution of Cooperative Organization and the Origins of Life

    "Management" (a system of evolvable constraints) is the key to the 
transition from non-life to life. This is because management is necessary 
to overcome the 'cooperation barrier'. This barrier impedes the ability of 
unmanaged, collectively-autocatalytic organizations of molecular species 
to evolve into complex, cooperative organizations. The barrier arises 
because molecular species that would make significant cooperative 
contributions to the success of an organization will often not be 
supported within the organization, and because parasites, side reactions 
and other ˙˙free-riding˙˙ molecular species will undermine cooperation. As 
a result, the barrier seriously limits the possibility space that can be 
explored by these un-managed organizations, preventing open-ended 
evolution, the evolution of individuality and the transition to life. 
Management can use its power to overcome the cooperation barrier by 
ensuring that beneficial co-operators are supported within the 
organization, and by suppressing free riders. In these ways management can 
control and manipulate the chemical processes of a collectively 
autocatalytic organization, producing novel processes that serve the 
interests of the organization as a whole and that could not arise and 
persist spontaneously in an un-managed chemical organization. Management 
is able to harvest benefits that are created by its interventions in 
autocatalytic organizations where the interventions increase productivity 
by promoting cooperation. Selection will therefore favour the emergence of 
managers that take over and manage chemical organizations. The paper 
defines all relevant ˙˙biological˙˙ concepts such as cooperation in purely 
physicochemical terms. Once life emerges, a new cooperation barrier arises 
each time a new level of organization begins to emerge. Appropriate 
management must emerge to overcome each barrier, producing the nested 
hierarchical structure of living processes.


The Evolution of Cooperative Organization and the Origins of Life

John E. Stewart

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=4eb181cc87&e=55e25a0e3e

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Universal temporal features of rankings in competitive sports and games

    Many complex phenomena, from the selection of traits in biological 
systems to hierarchy formation in social and economic entities, show signs 
of competition and heterogeneous performance in the temporal evolution of 
their components, which may eventually lead to stratified structures such 
as the wealth distribution worldwide. However, it is still unclear whether 
the road to hierarchical complexity is determined by the particularities 
of each phenomena, or if there are universal mechanisms of stratification 
common to many systems. Human sports and games, with their (varied but 
simplified) rules of competition and measures of performance, serve as an 
ideal test bed to look for universal features of hierarchy formation. With 
this goal in mind, we analyse here the behaviour of players and team 
rankings over time for several sports and games. Even though, for a given 
time, the distribution of performance ranks varies across activities, we 
find statistical regularities in the dynamics of ranks. Specifically the 
rank diversity, a measure of the number of elements occupying a given rank 
over a length of time, has the same functional form in sports and games as 
in languages, another system where competition is determined by the use or 
disuse of grammatical structures. Our results support the notion that 
hierarchical phenomena may be driven by the same underlying mechanisms of 
rank formation, regardless of the nature of their components. Moreover, 
such regularities can in principle be used to predict lifetimes of rank 
occupancy, thus increasing our ability to forecast stratification in the 
presence of competition.


Universal temporal features of rankings in competitive sports and games
José A. Morales, Sergio Sánchez, Jorge Flores, Carlos Pineda, Carlos Gershenson, Germinal Cocho, Jerónimo Zizumbo, Gerardo Ińiguez

http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=cdcaa1e269&e=55e25a0e3e

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Special Issue: General Systems Transdisciplinarity

    The following collection of papers lays out a comprehensive framework 
for a research agenda to establish a fully developed general theory of 
systems, which would serve as a foundation for a more fully integrated 
transdisciplinary systems field. It is an ambitious project, very 
carefully and clearly articulated, which the authors understand as 
embodying the motivating purpose behind the original founding in 1954 of 
the Society for General Systems Research (SGSR), renamed the International 
Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) in 1988. Growing out of the 
context of the Cold War, the founders of the SGSR (Ludwig von Bertalanffy, 
Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, and Anatol Rapoport) saw the need for 
greater cross-disciplinary collaboration, in order to address the 
increasingly complex challenges confronting the human community. 
Recognizing the limitations of the reductionism and mechanistic 
orientation of the dominant scientific paradigm, particularly in 
understanding the complex interplay of factors in systems involving human, 
technological and ecological dimensions, the founders sought to create a 
theoretical framework for the unity of knowledge in order to overcome 
academic fragmentation and facilitate greater interdisciplinary 
communication and cooperation.


Special Issue: General Systems Transdisciplinarity
Debora Hammond

Systema: connecting matter, life, culture and technology

Vol 4, No 1 (2016)

http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=1f3f8711cc&e=55e25a0e3e

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Network Science: Albert-László Barabási

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the 
genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated 
throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range 
of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the 
social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary 
audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining 
why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how 
viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have 
more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this 
innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between 
undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and 
derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at 
a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and 
software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for 
anyone with an interest in network science.

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The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders

    The standard approach in accounting for hierarchical differentiation in 
biology and the social sciences considers a hierarchy as a static 
distribution of individuals possessing differing amounts of some valued 
commodity, assumes that the hierarchy is generated by micro-level 
processes involving individuals, and attempts to reverse engineer the 
processes that produced the hierarchy. However, sufficient experimental 
and analytical results are available to evaluate this standard approach in 
the case of animal dominance hierarchies (pecking orders). Our evaluation 
using evidence from hierarchy formation in small groups of both hens and 
cichlid fish reveals significant deficiencies in the three tenets of the 
standard approach in accounting for the organization of dominance 
hierarchies. In consequence, we suggest that a new approach is needed to 
explain the organization of pecking orders and, very possibly, by 
implication, for other kinds of social hierarchies. We develop an example 
of such an approach that considers dominance hierarchies to be dynamic 
networks, uses dynamic sequences of interaction (dynamic network motifs) 
to explain the organization of dominance hierarchies, and derives these 
dynamic sequences directly from observation of hierarchy formation. We 
test this dynamical explanation using computer simulation and find a good 
fit with actual dynamics of hierarchy formation in small groups of hens. 
We hypothesize that the same dynamic sequences are used in small groups of 
many other animal species forming pecking orders, and we discuss the data 
required to evaluate our hypothesis. Finally, we briefly consider how our 
dynamic approach may be generalized to other kinds of social hierarchies 
using the example of the distribution of empty gastropod (snail) shells 
occupied in populations of hermit crabs.


Chase ID, Lindquist WB (2016) The Fragility of Individual-Based Explanations of Social Hierarchies: A Test Using Animal Pecking Orders. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0158900. http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=9548446083&e=55e25a0e3e

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==============================================
Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=37f1b1abac&e=55e25a0e3e ) and using the "Suggest" button.
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