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SOCNET  November 2016

SOCNET November 2016

Subject:

selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 14 Nov 2016 12:12:46 -0500

Content-Type:

MULTIPART/MIXED

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (142 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

   Barry Wellman

    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
                  Streisand/Sondheim
  _______________________________________________________________________
   NetLab Network                 FRSC                      INSNA Founder
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
                        http://amzn.to/zXZg39
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 14 Nov 2016 12:03:25 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=eb99fe318b&e=55e25a0e3e



Complex systems: physics beyond physics

    Complex systems are characterized by specific time-dependent interactions among their many constituents. As a consequence they often manifest rich, non-trivial and unexpected behavior. Examples arise both in the physical and non-physical world. The study of complex systems forms a new interdisciplinary research area that cuts across physics, biology, ecology, economics, sociology, and the humanities. In this paper we review the essence of complex systems from a physicist's point of view, and try to clarify what makes them conceptually different from systems that are traditionally studied in physics. Our goal is to demonstrate how the dynamics of such systems may be conceptualized in quantitative and predictive terms by extending notions from statistical physics and how they can often be captured in a framework of co-evolving multiplex network structures. We mention three areas of complex-systems science that are currently studied extensively, the science of cities, dynamics
of societies, and the representation of texts as evolutionary objects. We discuss why these areas form complex systems in the above sense. We argue that there exists plenty of new land for physicists to explore and that methodical and conceptual progress is needed most.


Complex systems: physics beyond physics

Yurij Holovatch, Ralph Kenna, Stefan Thurner

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6b1426d6a4&e=55e25a0e3e)


Immigrant community integration in world cities

    Migrant and hosting communities face long-term challenges in the integration process. Immigrants must adapt to new laws and ways of life, while hosts need to adjust to multicultural societies. Integration impacts many facets of life such as access to jobs, real state and public services and can be well approximated by the extent of spatial segregation of minority group residence. Here we conduct an extensive study of immigrant integration in 53 world cities by using Twitter language detection and by introducing metrics of spatial segregation. In this way, we quantify the Power of Integration of cities (their capacity to integrate diverse cultures), and characterize the relations between cultures when they act in the role of hosts and immigrants.


Immigrant community integration in world cities

Fabio Lamanna, Maxime Lenormand, María Henar Salas-Olmedo, Gustavo Romanillos, Bruno Gonçalves, José J. Ramasco

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=93a9690d7b&e=55e25a0e3e)

Spoiler: and the most integrated city according to this study is... London!



Multiplex Modeling of the Society

    The society has a multi-layered structure, where the layers represent the different contexts. To model this structure we begin with a single-layer weighted social network (WSN) model showing the Granovetterian structure. We find that when merging such WSN models, a sufficient amount of inter-layer correlation is needed to maintain the relationship between topology and link weights, while these correlations destroy the enhancement in the community overlap due to multiple layers. To resolve this, we devise a geographic multi-layer WSN model, where the indirect inter-layer correlations due to the geographic constraints of individuals enhance the overlaps between the communities and, at the same time, the Granovetterian structure is preserved. Furthermore, the network of social interactions can be considered as a multiplex from another point of view too: each layer corresponds to one communication channel and the aggregate of all them constitutes the entire social network.
However, usually one has information only about one of the channels, which should be considered as a sample of the whole. Here we show by simulations and analytical methods that this sampling may lead to bias. For example, while it is expected that the degree distribution of the whole social network has a maximum at a value larger than one, we get with reasonable assumptions about the sampling process a monotonously decreasing distribution as observed in empirical studies of single channel data. We analyse the far-reaching consequences of our findings.


Multiplex Modeling of the Society

Janos Kertesz, Janos Torok, Yohsuke Murase, Hang-Hyun Jo, Kimmo Kaski

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=7405facc77&e=55e25a0e3e)



A Universal Rank-Size Law

    http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=c01c7166eb&e=55e25a0e3e

A mere hyperbolic law, like the Zipf˙˙s law power function, is often inadequate to describe rank-size relationships. An alternative theoretical distribution is proposed based on theoretical physics arguments starting from the Yule-Simon distribution. A modeling is proposed leading to a universal form. A theoretical suggestion for the ˙˙best (or optimal) distribution˙˙, is provided through an entropy argument. The ranking of areas through the number of cities in various countries and some sport competition ranking serves for the present illustrations.


Ausloos M, Cerqueti R (2016) A Universal Rank-Size Law. PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166011. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166011

Source: journals.plos.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=46a2524b4c&e=55e25a0e3e)


Percolation in real multiplex networks

    We present an exact mathematical framework able to describe site-percolation transitions in real multiplex networks. Specifically, we consider the average percolation diagram valid over an infinite number of random configurations where nodes are present in the system with given probability. The approach relies on the locally treelike ansatz, so that it is expected to accurately reproduce the true percolation diagram of sparse multiplex networks with negligible number of short loops. The performance of our theory is tested in social, biological, and transportation multiplex graphs. When compared against previously introduced methods, we observe improvements in the prediction of the percolation diagrams in all networks analyzed. Results from our method confirm previous claims about the robustness of real multiplex networks, in the sense that the average connectedness of the system does not exhibit any significant abrupt change as its individual components are randomly
destroyed.


Percolation in real multiplex networks

Ginestra Bianconi, Filippo Radicchi

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=307e85e478&e=55e25a0e3e)


Lions, hyenas and mobs (oh my!)

    Understanding the factors that facilitate the emergence of cooperation among organisms is central to the study of social evolution. Spotted hyenas Crocuta crocuta frequently cooperate to mob lions Panthera leo, approaching the lions as a tightknit group while vocalizing loudly in an attempt to overwhelm them and drive them away. Whereas cooperative mobbing behavior has been well documented in birds and some mammals, to our knowledge it has never been described during interactions between 2 apex predators. Using a 27-year dataset, we characterize lion˙˙hyena encounters, assess rates of mobbing behavior observed during these interactions, and inquire whether mobbing results in successful acquisition of food. Lions and hyenas interacted most often at fresh kills, especially as prey size and the number of hyenas present increased. Possession of food at the beginning of an interaction positively affected retention of that food by each predator species. The presence of male lions
increased the probability of an interspecific interaction but decreased the likelihood of hyenas obtaining or retaining possession of the food. Hyena mobbing rates were highest at fresh kills, but lower when adult male lions were present. The occurrence of mobbing was predicted by an increase in the number of hyenas present. Whether or not mobbing resulted in acquisition of food from lions was predicted by an increase in the number of mobs formed by the hyenas present, suggesting that cooperation among hyenas enhances their fitness.


Lions, hyenas and mobs (oh my!)
Kenna D.S. Lehmann, Tracy M. Montgomery, Sarah M. MacLachlan, Jenna M. Parker, Olivia S. Spagnuolo, Kelsey J. VandeWetering, Patrick S. Bills, Kay E. Holekamp
Current Zoology

http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=8efbb64976&e=55e25a0e3e


Source: cz.oxfordjournals.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=24b13a8297&e=55e25a0e3e)



Early warning signals of regime shifts in coupled human˙˙environment systems

    In complex systems, a critical transition is a shift in a system˙˙s dynamical regime from its current state to a strongly contrasting state as external conditions move beyond a tipping point. These transitions are often preceded by characteristic early warning signals such as increased system variability. However, early warning signals in complex, coupled human˙˙environment systems (HESs) remain little studied. Here, we compare critical transitions and their early warning signals in a coupled HES model to an equivalent environment model uncoupled from the human system. We parameterize the HES model, using social and ecological data from old-growth forests in Oregon. We find that the coupled HES exhibits a richer variety of dynamics and regime shifts than the uncoupled environment system. Moreover, the early warning signals in the coupled HES can be ambiguous, heralding either an era of ecosystem conservationism or collapse of both forest ecosystems and conservationism. The
presence of human feedback in the coupled HES can also mitigate the early warning signal, making it more difficult to detect the oncoming regime shift. We furthermore show how the coupled HES can be ˙˙doomed to criticality˙˙: Strategic human interactions cause the system to remain perpetually in the vicinity of a collapse threshold, as humans become complacent when the resource seems protected but respond rapidly when it is under immediate threat. We conclude that the opportunities, benefits, and challenges of modeling regime shifts and early warning signals in coupled HESs merit further research.

Source: www.pnas.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=47723bb99a&e=55e25a0e3e)



The Age of ˙˙Megachange˙˙ ˙˙ Why It Makes Us So Anxious

    http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=a3d55fed92&e=55e25a0e3e

If you˙˙re wondering why every week seems to bring some new disruption to your world, why once-solid institutions seem shaky, author Darrell West has some explanations. At the heart of them is the idea of megachange ˙˙ itself rooted mostly in economics. Such periods of rapid disruption are cyclical, argues West, director of governance studies and the Center for Technology Innovation at the Brookings Institution. He explored these ideas in his new book, entitled Megachange: Economic Disruption, Political Upheaval, and Social Strife in the 21st Century.

Source: knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=a0cbe6f955&e=55e25a0e3e)

==============================================
Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=93cc486ad9&e=55e25a0e3e ) and using the "Suggest" button.
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