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SOCNET  July 2017

SOCNET July 2017

Subject:

selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 3 Jul 2017 09:22:34 -0400

Content-Type:

MULTIPART/MIXED

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (144 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

Happy Canada Day

   Barry Wellman

    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
                  Streisand/Sondheim
  _______________________________________________________________________
   NetLab Network                 FRSC                      INSNA Founder
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
                        http://amzn.to/zXZg39
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 3 Jul 2017 11:04:04 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=7bbe301fa6&e=55e25a0e3e


Mathematicians Decode the Surprising Complexity of Cow Herds

    http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=81a0a5702a&e=55e25a0e3e

DO ME A favor and picture a pasture dotted with a herd of grazing cows. Some stand and stare at you with that patented cow stare, others bury their heads in the green, green grass, while still others have laid down for a rest. Tranquil, right? About as simple as life gets?
Well, I˙˙m sorry to say that your idea of the herd life may be a lie. Because a new mathematical model posits that while they don˙˙t look it, cow herds may be extremely dynamic, secretly contentious gatherings of warring interests. Yes, with the help of a biologist, mathematicians calculated the fascinating dynamics of cow herds, and yes, they reported it today in a journal called Chaos.

Source: www.wired.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=a87adab087&e=55e25a0e3e)



Looking into Pandora˙˙s Box: The Content of Sci-Hub and its Usage

    Despite the growth of Open Access, potentially illegally circumventing paywalls to access scholarly publications is becoming a more mainstream phenomenon. The web service Sci-Hub is amongst the biggest facilitators of this, offering free access to around 62 million publications. So far it is not well studied how and why its users are accessing publications through Sci-Hub. By utilizing the recently released corpus of Sci-Hub and comparing it to the data of ~28 million downloads done through the service, this study tries to address some of these questions. The comparative analysis shows that both the usage and complete corpus is largely made up of recently published articles, with users disproportionately favoring newer articles and 35% of downloaded articles being published after 2013. These results hint that embargo periods before publications become Open Access are frequently circumnavigated using Guerilla Open Access approaches like Sci-Hub. On a journal level, the
downloads show a bias towards some scholarly disciplines, especially Chemistry, suggesting increased barriers to access for these. Comparing the use and corpus on a publisher level, it becomes clear that only 11% of publishers are highly requested in comparison to the baseline frequency, while 45% of all publishers are significantly less accessed than expected. Despite this, the oligopoly of publishers is even more remarkable on the level of content consumption, with 80% of all downloads being published through only 9 publishers. All of this suggests that Sci-Hub is used by different populations and for a number of different reasons, and that there is still a lack of access to the published scientific record. A further analysis of these openly available data resources will undoubtedly be valuable for the investigation of academic publishing.


Looking into Pandora's Box: The Content of Sci-Hub and its Usage

Bastian Greshake

F1000Research Article

Source: f1000research.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d0787e2cf5&e=55e25a0e3e)


Empowerment As Replacement for the Three Laws of Robotics

    The greater ubiquity of robots creates a need for generic guidelines for robot behavior. We focus less on how a robot can technically achieve a predefined goal and more on what a robot should do in the first place. Particularly, we are interested in the question how a heuristic should look like, which motivates the robot˙˙s behavior in interaction with human agents. We make a concrete, operational proposal as to how the information-theoretic concept of empowerment can be used as a generic heuristic to quantify concepts, such as self-preservation, protection of the human partner, and responding to human actions. While elsewhere we studied involved single-agent scenarios in detail, here, we present proof-of-principle scenarios demonstrating how empowerment interpreted in light of these perspectives allows one to specify core concepts with a similar aim as Asimov˙˙s Three Laws of Robotics in an operational way. Importantly, this route does not depend on having to establish an
explicit verbalized understanding of human language and conventions in the robots. Also, it incorporates the ability to take into account a rich variety of different situations and types of robotic embodiment.


Empowerment As Replacement for the Three Laws of Robotics

Christoph Salge, Daniel Polani

Front. Robot. AI, 29 June 2017 | http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=8a0be51458&e=55e25a0e3e

Source: journal.frontiersin.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ff23ae117c&e=55e25a0e3e)



Characterizing information importance and the effect on the spread in various graph topologies

    In this paper we present a thorough analysis of the nature of news in different mediums across the ages, introducing a unique mathematical model to fit the characteristics of information spread. This model enhances the information diffusion model to account for conflicting information and the topical distribution of news in terms of popularity for a given era. We translate this information to a separate graphical node model to determine the spread of a news item given a certain category and relevance factor. The two models are used as a base for a simulation of information dissemination for varying graph topoligies. The simulation is stress-tested and compared against real-world data to prove its relevancy. We are then able to use these simulations to deduce some conclusive statements about the optimization of information spread.


Characterizing information importance and the effect on the spread in various graph topologies
James Flamino, Alexander Norman, Madison Wyatt

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=4157349189&e=55e25a0e3e)


Limited individual attention and online virality of low-quality information

    http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=c966fc2e79&e=55e25a0e3e

Social media are massive marketplaces where ideas and news compete for our attention. Previous studies have shown that quality is not a necessary condition for online virality and that knowledge about peer choices can distort the relationship between quality and popularity. However, these results do not explain the viral spread of low-quality information, such as the digital misinformation that threatens our democracy. We investigate quality discrimination in a stylized model of an online social network, where individual agents prefer quality information, but have behavioural limitations in managing a heavy flow of information. We measure the relationship between the quality of an idea and its likelihood of becoming prevalent at the system level. We find that both information overload and limited attention contribute to a degradation of the market˙˙s discriminative power. A good tradeoff between discriminative power and diversity of information is possible according to the
model. However, calibration with empirical data characterizing information load and finite attention in real social media reveals a weak correlation between quality and popularity of information. In these realistic conditions, the model predicts that low-quality information is just as likely to go viral, providing an interpretation for the high volume of misinformation we observe online.


Limited individual attention and online virality of low-quality information
Xiaoyan Qiu, Diego F. M. Oliveira, Alireza Sahami Shirazi, Alessandro Flammini & Filippo Menczer

Nature Human Behaviour 1, Article number: 0132 (2017)
doi:10.1038/s41562-017-0132

Source: www.nature.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b247a6d0ce&e=55e25a0e3e)



Efficient Integration in Multi-Community Networks

    We study structures for efficient integration of multi-community networks where building bridges across communities incur an additional link cost compared to links within a community. Building on the connections models with direct link cost and direct and indirect benefits, we show that the efficient structure for homogeneous cost and benefit parameters, and for communities of arbitrary size, always has a diameter no greater than 3. We further show that if the internal cost is not small enough to justify a full graph for each community, integration always follows one of these two structures: Either a single star, or a new structure we introduce in this paper, called parallel-hyperstar, which is a special multi-core/periphery structure with parallel links among core nodes of different communities. We offer cost and benefit conditions where each structure is efficient and discuss the stability conditions of those structures.

Source: papers.ssrn.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=39ed36be62&e=55e25a0e3e)



Defined by Design: The Surprising Power of Hidden Gender, Age, and Body Bias in Everyday Products and Places

    http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=92f223410b&e=55e25a0e3e

This wide-ranging overview of design in everyday life demonstrates how design shapes our lives in ways most of us would never imagine. The author, a leading expert in social and psychological issues in design, uncovers the gender, age, and body biases inherent in the designs of common products and living spaces that we all routinely use. From the schools our children attend and the buildings we work in to ill-fitting clothes and one-size-fits-all seating in public transportation, restaurants, and movie theaters, we are surrounded by an artificial environment that can affect our comfort, our self-image, and even our health.

Anthony points out the flaws and disadvantages of certain fashions, children's toys, high-tech gadgets, packaging, public transportation, public restrooms, neighborhood layouts, classrooms, workplaces, hospitals, and more. In an increasingly diverse populace where many body types, age groups, and cultures interact, she argues that it's time our environments caught up.

Source: www.amazon.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=f3161f5fd6&e=55e25a0e3e)



2nd Australian Social Network Analysis Conference (ASNAC 2017)

    Welcome to the second Australian Social Network Analysis Conference (ASNAC 2017) to be held on the 28-29 November 2017 at the University of Sydney. This conference marks the second national meeting in Australia for researchers and practitioners who are working with social network analysis (SNA).

Source: www.asnac2017.org.au (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ee8dba016e&e=55e25a0e3e)



==============================================
Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=75b57e0b24&e=55e25a0e3e ) and using the "Suggest" button.
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