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SOCNET  July 2017

SOCNET July 2017

Subject:

selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 10:25:33 -0400

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MULTIPART/MIXED

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TEXT/PLAIN (161 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

Happy Canada Day to all.

   Barry Wellman

    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
                  Streisand/Sondheim
  _______________________________________________________________________
   NetLab Network                 FRSC                      INSNA Founder
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
                        http://amzn.to/zXZg39
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 10 Jul 2017 11:02:39 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ae71fccbbe&e=55e25a0e3e



Why we live in hierarchies: a quantitative treatise

    This book is concerned with the various aspects of hierarchical collective behaviour which is manifested by most complex systems in nature. From the many of the possible topics, we plan to present a selection of those that we think are useful from the point of shedding light from very different directions onto our quite general subject. Our intention is to both present the essential contributions by the existing approaches as well as go significantly beyond the results obtained by traditional methods by applying a more quantitative approach then the common ones (there are many books on qualitative interpretations). In addition to considering hierarchy in systems made of similar kinds of units, we shall concentrate on problems involving either dominance relations or the process of collective decision-making from various viewpoints.


Why we live in hierarchies: a quantitative treatise
Anna Zafeiris, Tamás Vicsek

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b01b95fe24&e=55e25a0e3e)



Self-Organization and The Origins of Life: The Managed-Metabolism Hypothesis

    The managed-metabolism hypothesis suggests that a cooperation barrier must be overcome if self-producing chemical organizations are to transition from non-life to life. This barrier prevents un-managed, self-organizing, autocatalytic networks of molecular species from individuating into complex, cooperative organizations. The barrier arises because molecular species that could otherwise make significant cooperative contributions to the success of an organization will often not be supported within the organization, and because side reactions and other free-riding processes will undermine cooperation. As a result, the barrier seriously limits the possibility space that can be explored by un-managed organizations, impeding individuation, complex functionality and the transition to life. The barrier can be overcome comprehensively by appropriate management which implements a system of evolvable constraints. The constraints support beneficial co-operators and suppress free riders.
In this way management can manipulate the chemical processes of an autocatalytic organization, producing novel processes that serve the interests of the organization as a whole and that could not arise and persist spontaneously in an un-managed chemical organization. Management self-organizes because it is able to capture some of the benefits that are produced when its management of an autocatalytic organization promotes beneficial cooperation. Selection therefore favours the emergence of managers that take over and manage chemical organizations so as to overcome the cooperation barrier. The managed-metabolism hypothesis shows that if management is to overcome the cooperation barrier comprehensively, its interventions must be digitally coded. In this way, the hypothesis accounts for the two-tiered structure of all living cells in which a digitally-coded genetic apparatus manages an analogically-informed metabolism.


Self-Organization and The Origins of Life: The Managed-Metabolism Hypothesis
John E. Stewart

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=72a7cf5537&e=55e25a0e3e)



Thermodynamics of Evolutionary Games

    How cooperation can evolve between players is an unsolved problem of biology. Here we use Hamiltonian dynamics of models of the Ising type to describe populations of cooperating and defecting players to show that the equilibrium fraction of cooperators is given by the expectation value of a thermal observable akin to a magnetization. We apply the formalism to the Public Goods game with three players, and show that a phase transition between cooperation and defection occurs that is equivalent to a transition in one-dimensional Ising crystals with long-range interactions. We also investigate the effect of punishment on cooperation and find that punishment acts like a magnetic field that leads to an "alignment" between players, thus encouraging cooperation. We suggest that a thermal Hamiltonian picture of the evolution of cooperation can generate other insights about the dynamics of evolving groups by mining the rich literature of critical dynamics in low-dimensional spin
systems.


Thermodynamics of Evolutionary Games
Christoph Adami, Arend Hintze

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=0f8efe1ae1&e=55e25a0e3e)


To slow, or not to slow? New science in sub-second networks

    What happens when you slow down part of an ultrafast network that is operating quicker than the blink of an eye, e.g. electronic exchange network, navigational systems in driverless vehicles, or even neuronal processes in the brain? This question just adopted immediate commercial, legal and political importance following U.S. financial regulators' decision to allow a new network node to intentionally introduce delays of microseconds. Though similar requests are set to follow, there is still no scientific understanding available to policymakers of the likely system-wide impact of such delays. Giving academic researchers access to (so far prohibitively expensive) microsecond exchange data would help rectify this situation. As a by-product, the lessons learned would deepen understanding of instabilities across myriad other networks, e.g. impact of millisecond delays on brain function and safety of driverless vehicle navigation systems beyond human response times.


To slow, or not to slow? New science in sub-second networks

Neil F. Johnson

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=05df702200&e=55e25a0e3e)



[1707.01401] Optimal percolation on multiplex networks

    Optimal percolation is the problem of finding the minimal set of nodes such that if the members of this set are removed from a network, the network is fragmented into non-extensive disconnected clusters. The solution of the optimal percolation problem has direct applicability in strategies of immunization in disease spreading processes, and influence maximization for certain classes of opinion dynamical models. In this paper, we consider the problem of optimal percolation on multiplex networks. The multiplex scenario serves to realistically model various technological, biological, and social networks. We find that the multilayer nature of these systems, and more precisely multiplex characteristics such as edge overlap and interlayer degree-degree correlation, profoundly changes the properties of the set of nodes identified as the solution of the optimal percolation problem.


Optimal percolation on multiplex networks
Saeed Osat, Ali Faqeeh, Filippo Radicchi

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=da4a8485e8&e=55e25a0e3e)



Development of structural correlations and synchronization from adaptive rewiring in networks of Kuramoto oscillators

    Synchronization of non-identical oscillators coupled through complex networks is an important example of collective behavior. It is interesting to ask how the structural organization of network interactions influences this process. Several studies have uncovered optimal topologies for synchronization by making purposeful alterations to a network. Yet, the connectivity patterns of many natural systems are often not static, but are rather modulated over time according to their dynamics. This co-evolution - and the extent to which the dynamics of the individual units can shape the organization of the network itself - is not well understood. Here, we study initially randomly connected but locally adaptive networks of Kuramoto oscillators. The system employs a co-evolutionary rewiring strategy that depends only on instantaneous, pairwise phase differences of neighboring oscillators, and that conserves the total number of edges, allowing the effects of local reorganization to be
isolated. We find that a simple regulatory rule - which preserves connections between more out-of-phase oscillators while rewiring connections between more in-phase oscillators - can cause initially disordered networks to organize into more structured topologies that support enhanced synchronization dynamics. We examine how this process unfolds over time, finding both a dependence on the intrinsic frequencies of the oscillators and the global coupling. For large enough coupling and after sufficient adaptation, the resulting networks exhibit degree - frequency and frequency - neighbor frequency correlations. These properties have previously been associated with optimal synchronization or explosive transitions. By considering a time-dependent interplay between structure and dynamics, this work offers a mechanism through which emergent phenomena can arise in complex systems utilizing local rules.


Development of structural correlations and synchronization from adaptive rewiring in networks of Kuramoto oscillators
Lia Papadopoulos, Jason Kim, Jurgen Kurths, Danielle S. Bassett

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=32d2f5ac5b&e=55e25a0e3e)



Dynamics of organizational culture: Individual beliefs vs. social conformity

    http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6a4e28f1f6&e=55e25a0e3e

The complex nature of organizational culture challenges our ability to infer its underlying dynamics from observational studies. Recent computational studies have adopted a distinctly different view, where plausible mechanisms are proposed to describe a wide range of social phenomena, including the onset and evolution of organizational culture. In this spirit, this work introduces an empirically-grounded, agent-based model which relaxes a set of assumptions that describes past work˙˙(a) omittance of an individual˙˙s strive for achieving cognitive coherence; (b) limited integration of important contextual factors˙˙by utilizing networks of beliefs and incorporating social rank into the dynamics. As a result, we illustrate that: (i) an organization may appear to be increasingly coherent in terms of its organizational culture, yet be composed of individuals with reduced levels of coherence; (ii) the components of social conformity˙˙peer-pressure and social rank˙˙are influential at
different aggregation levels.


Ellinas C, Allan N, Johansson A (2017) Dynamics of organizational culture: Individual beliefs vs. social conformity. PLoS ONE 12(6): e0180193. http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d6e0fb508e&e=55e25a0e3e

Source: journals.plos.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=bca5f148bd&e=55e25a0e3e)


Popular: The Power of Likability in a Status-Obsessed World

    http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=990d06b41b&e=55e25a0e3e

No matter how old you are, there˙˙s a good chance that the word ˙˙popular˙˙ immediately transports you back to your teenage years. Most of us can easily recall the adolescent social cliques, the high school pecking order, and which of our peers stood out as the most or the least popular teens we knew. Even as adults we all still remember exactly where we stood in the high school social hierarchy, and the powerful emotions associated with our status persist decades later. This may be for good reason.

Popular examines why popularity plays such a key role in our development and, ultimately, how it still influences our happiness and success today. In many ways˙˙some even beyond our conscious awareness˙˙those old dynamics of our youth continue to play out in every business meeting, every social gathering, in our personal relationships, and even how we raise our children. Our popularity even affects our DNA, our health, and our mortality in fascinating ways we never previously realized. More than childhood intelligence, family background, or prior psychological issues, research indicates that it˙˙s how popular we were in our early years that predicts how successful and how happy we grow up to be.

But it˙˙s not always the conventionally popular people who fare the best, for the simple reason that there is more than one type of popularity˙˙and many of us still long for the wrong one. As children, we strive to be likable, which can offer real benefits not only on the playground but throughout our lives. In adolescence, though, a new form of popularity emerges, and we suddenly begin to care about status, power, influence, and notoriety˙˙research indicates that this type of popularity hurts us more than we realize.
Popular relies on the latest research in psychology and neuroscience to help us make the wisest choices for ourselves and for our children, so we may all pursue more meaningful, satisfying, and rewarding relationships.

Source: www.amazon.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=0f30a91704&e=55e25a0e3e)


The Book of Circles: Visualizing Spheres of Knowledge (by Manuel Lima)

    http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b624396a37&e=55e25a0e3e

In this follow-up to his hugely popular The Book of Trees and Visual Complexity, Manuel Lima takes us on a lively tour through millennia of circular information design. Three hundred detailed and colorful illustrations from around the world cover an encyclopedic array of subjects--architecture, urban planning, fine art, design, fashion, technology, religion, cartography, biology, astronomy, and physics, all based on the circle, the universal symbol of unity, perfection, movement, and infinity.


The Book of Circles juxtaposes clay trading tokens used by the ancient Sumerians with the iconic logos of twentieth-century corporations, a chart organizing seven hundred Nintendo offerings with a Victorian board game based on the travels of Nellie Bly, and a visual analysis of Stanley Kubrick's film The Shining with early celestial charts that placed the earth at the center of the universe, among a wealth of other elegant and intriguing methods for displaying information.

Lima provides an authoritative history of the circle as well as a unique taxonomy of twenty-one varieties of circle diagrams, rounding out this visual feast for infographics enthusiasts.

Source: www.amazon.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d62f1ce55e&e=55e25a0e3e)



==============================================
Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d1088f3716&e=55e25a0e3e ) and using the "Suggest" button.
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