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SOCNET  August 2017

SOCNET August 2017

Subject:

(((selected))) Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 21 Aug 2017 10:15:57 -0400

Content-Type:

MULTIPART/MIXED

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (243 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

selected according to my quirky brain

   Barry Wellman

    A vision is just a vision if it's only in your head
    Step by step, link by link, putting it together
                  Streisand/Sondheim
  _______________________________________________________________________
   NetLab Network                 FRSC                      INSNA Founder
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman           twitter: @barrywellman
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
                        http://amzn.to/zXZg39
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 21 Aug 2017 11:04:51 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=3dfdb16b10&e=55e25a0e3e



What we get wrong about technology

    http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=563b8e92a9&e=55e25a0e3e

Blade Runner (1982) is a magnificent film, but there  s something odd about it. The heroine, Rachael, seems to be a beautiful young woman. In reality, she  s a piece of technology    an organic robot designed by the Tyrell Corporation. She has a lifelike mind, imbued with memories extracted from a human being.

So sophisticated is Rachael that she is impossible to distinguish from a 
human without specialised equipment; she even believes herself to be 
human. Los Angeles police detective Rick Deckard knows otherwise; in 
Rachael, Deckard is faced with an artificial intelligence so beguiling, he 
finds himself falling in love. Yet when he wants to invite Rachael out for 
a drink, what does he do?

He calls her up from a payphone.

Source: www.ft.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=db346c4ba5&e=55e25a0e3e)



Social influence on 5-year survival in a longitudinal chemotherapy ward co-presence network

    Chemotherapy is often administered in openly designed hospital wards, 
where the possibility of patient  patient social influence on health 
exists. Previous research found that social relationships influence cancer 
patient's health; however, we have yet to understand social influence 
among patients receiving chemotherapy in the hospital. We investigate the 
influence of co-presence in a chemotherapy ward. We use data on 4,691 
cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom who 
average 59.8 years of age, and 44% are Male. We construct a network of 
patients where edges exist when patients are co-present in the ward, 
weighted by both patients' time in the ward. Social influence is based on 
total weighted co-presence with focal patients' immediate neighbors, 
considering neighbors' 5-year mortality. Generalized estimating equations 
evaluated the effect of neighbors' 5-year mortality on focal patient's 
5-year mortality. Each 1,000-unit increase in weighted co-presence with a 
patient who dies within 5 years increases a patient's mortality odds by 
42% (   = 0.357, CI:0.204,0.510). Each 1,000-unit increase in co-presence 
with a patient surviving 5 years reduces a patient's odds of dying by 30% 
(   =  0.344, CI:  0.538,0.149). Our results suggest that social influence 
occurs in chemotherapy wards, and thus may need to be considered in 
chemotherapy delivery.


Social influence on 5-year survival in a longitudinal chemotherapy ward co-presence network
JEFFREY LIENERT, CHRISTOPHER STEVEN MARCUM, JOHN FINNEY, FELIX REED-TSOCHAS

Network Science
DOI: http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6e807d4e9f&e=55e25a0e3e

Source: www.cambridge.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=cb27981782&e=55e25a0e3e)


Corrupting cooperation and how anti-corruption strategies may backfire

    Understanding how humans sustain cooperation in large, anonymous 
societies remains a central question of both theoretical and practical 
importance. In the laboratory, experimental behavioural research using 
tools like public goods games suggests that cooperation can be sustained 
by institutional punishment  analogous to governments, police forces and 
other institutions that sanction free-riders on behalf of individuals in 
large societies1 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=6a1285a93e&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,2 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=238b239371&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,3 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=339863bc2e&e=55e25a0e3e) 
. In the real world, however, corruption can undermine the effectiveness 
of these institutions4 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=28c2107cc2&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,5 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=4437fc9aec&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,6 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=a3698668fd&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,7 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=c2a0aeecdb&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,8 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=8c2259ffe2&e=55e25a0e3e) 
. Levels of corruption correlate with institutional, economic and cultural 
factors, but the causal directions of these relationships are difficult to 
determine5 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=404023b4a5&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,6 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=76573af2ed&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,8 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=63212be64f&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,  9 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=31716838d5&e=55e25a0e3e) 
,  10 
(http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=b3e2dc48b5&e=55e25a0e3e) 
. Here, we experimentally model corruption by introducing the possibility 
of bribery. We investigate the effect of structural factors (a leader  s 
punitive power and economic potential), anti-corruption strategies 
(transparency and leader investment in the public good) and cultural 
background. The results reveal that (1) corruption possibilities cause a 
large (25%) decrease in public good provisioning, (2) empowering leaders 
decreases cooperative contributions (in direct opposition to typical 
institutional punishment results), (3) growing up in a more corrupt 
society predicts more acceptance of bribes and (4) anti-corruption 
strategies are effective under some conditions, but can further decrease 
public good provisioning when leaders are weak and the economic potential 
is poor. These results suggest that a more nuanced approach to corruption 
is needed and that proposed panaceas, such as transparency, may actually 
be harmful in some contexts.


Corrupting cooperation and how anti-corruption strategies may backfire
Michael Muthukrishna, Patrick Francois, Shayan Pourahmadi & Joseph Henrich
Nature Human Behaviour 1, Article number: 0138 (2017)
doi:10.1038/s41562-017-0138

Source: www.nature.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=dfbd5be770&e=55e25a0e3e)



Spatiotemporal Network Markers of Individual Variability in the Human Functional Connectome

    Functional connectivity (FC) analysis has revealed stable and reproducible features of brain network organization, as well as their variations across individuals. Here, we localize network markers of individual variability in FC and track their dynamical expression across time. First, we determine the minimal set of network components required to identify individual subjects. Among specific resting-state networks, we find that the FC pattern of the frontoparietal network allows for the most reliable identification of individuals. Looking across the whole brain, an optimization approach designed to identify a minimal node set converges on distributed portions of the frontoparietal system. Second, we track the expression of these network markers across time. We find that the FC fingerprint is most clearly expressed at times when FC patterns exhibit low modularity. In summary, our study reveals distributed network markers of individual variability that are localized in both
space and time.


Spatiotemporal Network Markers of Individual Variability in the Human 
Functional Connectome CleofÚ Pe˝a-Gˇmez Andrea Avena-Koenigsberger Jorge 
Sepulcre Olaf Sporns Cerebral Cortex, 
http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=ed120a05c1&e=55e25a0e3e

Source: academic.oup.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage1.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=0bb42a0be2&e=55e25a0e3e)


The elegant law that governs us all

    A dog owner weighs twice as much as her German shepherd. Does she eat 
twice as much? Does a big city need twice as many gas stations as one that 
is half its size? Our first instinct is to say yes. But, alas, we are 
wrong. On a per-gram basis, a human requires about 25% less food than her 
dog, and the larger city needs only 85% more gas stations. As Geoffrey 
West explains in Scale, the reason behind these intriguing phenomena is a 
universal law known as allometry  the finding that as organisms, cities, 
and companies grow, many of their characteristics scale nonlinearly.


The elegant law that governs us all

Albert-Lßszlˇ Barabßsi
Scale. Geoffrey West. Penguin Press, 2017. 490 pp.

Science  14 Jul 2017:
Vol. 357, Issue 6347, pp. 138
DOI: 10.1126/science.aan4040

Source: science.sciencemag.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage2.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=223a854eef&e=55e25a0e3e)



Jury Rigging and Supply Network Design: Evolutionary   Tinkering   in the presence of Unknown  Unknowns

    Nobel laureate Franšois Jacob wrote often about evolution as 
  tinkering   in which parts and processes alone or together in cells and 
organisms were co-opted for new functional purposes. Such behavior remains 
unexamined concerning how adaptive systems succeed in biology, supply 
networks, the economy, and beyond. In the presence of Unknown-Unknown 
events (Unk-Unks) that have no prior occurrences and are evident only in 
their realizations, the design of supply networks must allow for 
developing adaptive capabilities at the firm-level. When done right, such 
organic development in the supply network would mimic a biological 
phenomenon of tinkering and natural selection. We describe enabling such 
adaptive processes as jury rigging. We discuss how firms could design 
their supply networks and organize their supply network ex-ante that 
enables the network members to respond to Unk-Unks in an innovative way 
through jury rigging of their relationships. Development of such jury 
rigging capabilities requires integrative suppliers with deep embedded 
relationships, enabled through appropriate incentives that include 
incomplete contracts with the suppliers and sharing of unspecified 
decision rights.


Jury Rigging and Supply Network Design: Evolutionary   Tinkering   in the presence of Unknown-Unknowns
Stuart Kauffman, Surya D. Pathak, Pradyot K. Sen,
Thomas Choi

Journal of Supply Chain Management

doi: 10.1111/jscm.12146

Source: onlinelibrary.wiley.com (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=d57c9073c5&e=55e25a0e3e)



Mapping spreading dynamics: From time respecting shortest paths to bond percolation

    We propose a mapping of spreading dynamics to an ensemble of weighted networks, where edge weights represent propagation time delays. In this mapping, shortest paths in the weighted networks preserve the temporal causality of spreading. Our framework provides insights into the local and global spreading dynamics, enables efficient source detection, and helps to improve strategies for time-critical vaccination. Finally, we establish the connection of our mapping to bond percolation theory.


Mapping spreading dynamics: From time respecting shortest paths to bond 
percolation Dijana Tolic, Kaj-Kolja Kleineberg, Nino Antulov-Fantulin

Source: arxiv.org (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=5610daca9e&e=55e25a0e3e)


==============================================
Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (http://unam.us4.list-manage.com/track/click?u=0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b&id=7fb984e4ca&e=55e25a0e3e ) and using the "Suggest" button.
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