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SOCNET  September 2018

SOCNET September 2018

Subject:

Selected Latest Complexity Digest Posts (fwd)

From:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Barry Wellman <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Mon, 24 Sep 2018 09:40:47 -0400

Content-Type:

MULTIPART/MIXED

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

TEXT/PLAIN (159 lines)

*****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org  *****

Happy Harvest Time!

   Barry Wellman

   Step by step, link by link, putting it together--Streisand/Sondheim
        The earth to be spannd, connected by network--Walt Whitman
              It's Always Something--Roseanne Roseannadanna
  _______________________________________________________________________
   NetLab Network      			                            FRSC
   Distinguished Visiting Scholar   Social Media Lab   Ryerson University
         Founder, International Network for Social Network Analysis
   NETWORKED: The New Social Operating System  Lee Rainie & Barry Wellman
   https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__www.chass.utoronto.ca_-7Ewellman&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=-OC_h4RpIUF7aA8D3ITVYaPJ3Qv5Dp4xm9-p3Z-kTKE&e=            https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__amzn.to_zXZg39&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=v7K96zdG65FcmZqnJozQAMrE0RlUb1FOoAGBpRBQ4WE&e=
              https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__en.wikipedia.org_wiki_Barry-5FWellman&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=IP7XYKG1UfqIKnoy42CiI-hS_tQEZ2UzS2DzUcDXvLc&e=
   _______________________________________________________________________


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 24 Sep 2018 11:03:15 +0000
From: "[utf-8] Complexity Digest" <[log in to unmask]>
Reply-To: [log in to unmask]
To: "[utf-8] Barry" <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: [utf-8] Latest Complexity Digest Posts

Learn about the latest and greatest related to complex systems research. More at https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__unam.us4.list-2Dmanage.com_track_click-3Fu-3D0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b-26id-3D80daf7efba-26e-3D55e25a0e3e&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=D-JLcOgR1fPMvexwua4-nZYae14yv6KFmqdkUKbosmY&e=



Cognitive mechanisms for human flocking dynamics

    Low-level ˙˙adaptive˙˙ and higher-level ˙˙sophisticated˙˙ human reasoning processes have been proposed to play opposing roles in the emergence of unpredictable collective behaviors such as crowd panics, traffic jams, and market bubbles. While adaptive processes are widely recognized drivers of emergent social complexity, complementary theories of sophistication predict that incentives, education, and other inducements to rationality will suppress it. We show in a series of multiplayer laboratory experiments that, rather than suppressing complex social dynamics, sophisticated reasoning processes can drive them. Our experiments elicit an endogenous collective behavior and show that it is driven by the human ability to recursively anticipate the reasoning of others. We identify this behavior, ˙˙sophisticated flocking˙˙, across three games, the Beauty Contest and the ˙˙Mod Game˙˙ and ˙˙Runway Game˙˙. In supporting our argument, we also present evidence for mental models and social norms
constraining how players express their higher-level reasoning abilities. By implicating sophisticated recursive reasoning in the kind of complex dynamic that it has been predicted to suppress, we support interdisciplinary perspectives that emergent complexity is typical of even the most intelligent populations and carefully designed social systems.


Cognitive mechanisms for human flocking dynamics
Seth Frey, Robert L. Goldstone

Journal of Computational Social Science
September 2018, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 349˙˙375

Source: link.springer.com (https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__unam.us4.list-2Dmanage.com_track_click-3Fu-3D0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b-26id-3D708726fb79-26e-3D55e25a0e3e&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=hh3IVMBlcjqo8GLzLBxrFzyYaVVr6RI2-6uYAwBvLu0&e=)



Zipf˙˙s and Taylor˙˙s laws

    Zipf's law states that the frequency of an observation with a given 
value is inversely proportional to the square of that value; Taylor's law, 
instead, describes the scaling between fluctuations in the size of a 
population and its mean. Empirical evidence of the validity of these laws 
has been found in many and diverse domains. Despite the numerous models 
proposed to explain the presence of Zipf's law, there is no consensus on 
how it originates from a microscopic process of individual dynamics 
without fine-tuning. Here we show that Zipf's law and Taylor's law can 
emerge from a general class of stochastic processes at the individual 
level, which incorporate one of two features: environmental variability, 
i.e., fluctuations of parameters, or correlations, i.e., dependence 
between individuals. Under these assumptions, we show numerically and with 
theoretical arguments that the conditional variance of the population 
increments scales as the square of the population, and that the 
corresponding stationary distribution of the processes follows Zipf's law.


Zipf's and Taylor's laws

Charlotte James, Sandro Azaele, Amos Maritan, and Filippo Simini
Phys. Rev. E 98, 032408 ˙˙ Published 12 September 2018

Source: journals.aps.org (https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__unam.us4.list-2Dmanage.com_track_click-3Fu-3D0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b-26id-3D12bb3424f2-26e-3D55e25a0e3e&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=x2chQxkFNpHpmicYvWPGZtx7uOyVSJkpSql01upYHb8&e=)



Two postdoctoral positions in computational social science at the Network Science Institute

    https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__unam.us4.list-2Dmanage.com_track_click-3Fu-3D0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b-26id-3D1befb15d7a-26e-3D55e25a0e3e&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=Zo3zWK6TGoY-47JgKDE63PWHdiVHQKoewCWMhGZbMB4&e=

Two postdoctoral positions in computational social science are available at the Network Science Institute, to work with David Lazer and Christoph Riedl. Candidates will be expected to work on a combination of their own research and collaborative projects within the institute.

Source: christophriedl.net (https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__unam.us4.list-2Dmanage.com_track_click-3Fu-3D0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b-26id-3Dfd9feeea96-26e-3D55e25a0e3e&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=VqumZ8RPsjFs88EpJ_1MKE65rnAyUW2LoQySmuxIyjY&e=)



Measuring accessibility using gravity and radiation models

    Since the presentation of the radiation model, much work has been done 
to compare its findings with those obtained from gravitational models. 
These comparisons always aim at measuring the accuracy with which the 
models reproduce the mobility described by origin˙˙destination matrices. 
This has been done at different spatial scales using different datasets, 
and several versions of the models have been proposed to adjust to various 
spatial systems. However, the models, to our knowledge, have never been 
compared with respect to policy testing scenarios. For this reason, here 
we use the models to analyse the impact of the introduction of a new 
transportation network, a bus rapid transport system, in the city of 
Teresina in Brazil. We do this by measuring the estimated variation in the 
trip distribution, and formulate an accessibility to employment indicator 
for the different zones of the city. By comparing the results obtained 
with the two approaches, we are able to not only better assess the 
goodness of fit and the impact of this intervention, but also understand 
reasons for the systematic similarities and differences in their 
predictions.


Measuring accessibility using gravity and radiation models
Duccio Piovani, Elsa Arcaute, Gabriela Uchoa, Alan Wilson, Michael Batty
Published 12 September 2018.DOI: 10.1098/rsos.171668

Source: rsos.royalsocietypublishing.org (https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__unam.us4.list-2Dmanage.com_track_click-3Fu-3D0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b-26id-3Dfa795d0821-26e-3D55e25a0e3e&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=oDEYmf9JUUepuyrKoWqA411_4N6eHSvm5jb5LS_840c&e=)



Criticality distinguishes the ensemble of biological regulatory networks

    The hypothesis many living systems should exhibit near-critical 
behavior is well-motivated theoretically, and an increasing number of 
cases have been demonstrated empirically. However, a systematic analysis 
across biological networks, which would enable identification of the 
network properties that drive criticality, has not yet been realized. 
Here, we provide a first comprehensive survey of criticality across a 
diverse sample of biological networks, leveraging a publicly available 
database of 67 Boolean models of regulatory circuits. We find all 67 
networks to be near-critical. By comparing to ensembles of random networks 
with similar topological and logical properties, we show criticality in 
biological networks is not predictable solely from macroscale properties 
such as mean degree ˙˙K˙˙and mean bias in the logic functions ˙˙p˙˙, as 
previously emphasized in random Boolean network theory. Instead, the 
ensemble of real biological circuits is jointly constrained by the local 
causal structure and logic of each node. In this way, biological 
regulatory networks are more distinguished from random networks by their 
criticality than by other macroscale network properties such as degree 
distribution, edge density, or fraction of activating conditions.


Criticality distinguishes the ensemble of biological regulatory networks
Phys. Rev. Lett.
Bryan C. Daniels, Hyunju Kim, Douglas Moore, Siyu Zhou, Harrison Smith, Bradley Karas, Stuart A. Kauffman, and Sara I. Walker

Source: journals.aps.org (https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__unam.us4.list-2Dmanage.com_track_click-3Fu-3D0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b-26id-3Dda1004dde4-26e-3D55e25a0e3e&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=bn9p1yPRC_Lsv6GbRBldHrwOaKbxHxvPp8Zg-7fBAUQ&e=)



==============================================
Sponsored by the Complex Systems Society.
Founding Editor: Gottfried Mayer.
Editor-in-Chief: Carlos Gershenson.

You can contribute to Complexity Digest selecting one of our topics (https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__unam.us4.list-2Dmanage.com_track_click-3Fu-3D0eb0ac9b4e8565f2967a8304b-26id-3Dcab048ecd8-26e-3D55e25a0e3e&d=DwIFAw&c=pZJPUDQ3SB9JplYbifm4nt2lEVG5pWx2KikqINpWlZM&r=uXI5O6HThk1ULkPyaT6h2Ws3RKNKSY__GQ4DuS9UHhs&m=iImyuYcoGuZK_4RVNerJJKUD9Y62npNLns6fxYZtRDE&s=J3vZlEr-N7x3P0_g3FPp32Vw-MflOipjAuC4xesIhZQ&e= ) and using the "Suggest" button.
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