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Subject:

Re: CL quiz

From:

Perry Franklin <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

[log in to unmask]

Date:

Tue, 17 Dec 1996 11:08:02 -0700

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (121 lines)

Ted,

Since it's the Holiday Season, I think it came from On High.

Perry Christmas




> Date sent:      Tue, 17 Dec 1996 11:47:51 -0500
> From:           Ted Panitz <[log in to unmask]>
> Subject:        CL quiz
> To:             [log in to unmask]
> Send reply to:  Open Forum for Learning Assistance Professionals
>                 <[log in to unmask]>

>  Hi listers,
>
>      Can you guess who wrote the following statements and when they were
> written?  The author has done a marvelous job of defining why the lecture method
> of teaching is so widely used while at the same time warning of its limitations
> and drawbacks. In addition the author provides a very strong philosophical and
> practical basis for cooperative learning, something many people have asked for
> in previous discussions.
>
>     I was considering giving a prize to the first ten correct replies, something
> like a trip to the Bahamas during the winter months, but that is financially
> impractical so your prize will have to be the satisfaction of knowing your were
> correct.
>
>     I will send out the answer at the beginning of the posting of responses to
> CL series #6-policies, which shall follow wihin a few days. Some list members
> will just have to let their excitement build over the next several days in
> anticipation of that material arriving. A little like waiting for Santa.
>
>      On a serious note I would love to hear your comments on the quotes below.
> Send them to the list to see if we can generate additional discussion about CL
> or to me directly and I will compile them.
>
> Regards,
> Ted      [log in to unmask]
>
>
> The following paragraphs are taken from the same source and are continuous and
> unedited. Quotation marks are left out for convenience.    WHO IS THE MYSTERY
> AUTHOR???
>
>   Intentional education signifies, as we have already seen, a specially selected
> environment, the selection being made on the basis of materials and method
> specifically promoting growth in the desired direction. Since language
> represents the physical conditions that have been subjected to the maximum
> transformation in the interests of social life- physical things which have lost
> their original quality in becoming social tools- it is appropriate that language
> should play a large part compared with other appliances. By it we are led to
> share vicariously in past human experience, thus widening and enriching the
> experience of the present. We are enabled, symbolically and imaginatively, to
> anticipate situations. In countless ways, language condenses meanings that
> record social outcomes and presage social outlooks. So significant is it of a
> liberal share in what is worth while in life that unlettered and uneducated have
> become almost synonymous.
>
>      The emphasis in school upon this particular tool has, however, its
> dangers-dangers which are not theoretical but exhibited in practice. Why is it,
> in spite of the  fact that teaching by pouring in, learning by a passive
> absorption, are universally condemned, that they are still so intrenched in
> practice? That education is not an affair of "telling" and being told, but an
> active and constructive process, is a principle almost as generally violated in
> practice as conceded in theory. Is not this deplorable situation due to the fact
> that the doctrine is itself merely told? It is preached; it is lectured; it is
> written about. Bit its enactment into practice requires that the school
> environment be equipped with agencies for doing, with tools and physical
> materials, to an extent rarely attained. It requires that methods of instruction
> and administration be modified to allow and to secure direct and continuous
> occupations with things. Not that the use of language as an educational resource
> should lessen; but that its use should be more vital and fruitful by having its
> normal connection with shared activities. "These things ought ye to have done,
> and not to have left the others undone." And for the school "these things" mean
> equipment with the instrumentalities of cooperative or joint activity.
>
>      For when the schools depart from the educational conditions effective in
> the out-of-school environment, they necessarily substitute a bookish, a
> pseudo-intellectual spirit for a social spirit. Children doubtless go to school
> to learn, but it has yet to be proved that learning occurs most adequately when
> it is made a seperate conscious business. When treating it as a business of this
> sort tends to preclude the social sense which comes from sharing in an activity
> of common concern and value, the effort at isolated intellectual learning
> contradicts its own aim. We may secure motor activity and sensory excitation by
> keeping an individual by himself, but we cannot thereby get him to understand
> the meaning which things have in the life of which he is a part.  We may secure
> technical specialized ability in algebra, Latin or biology, but not the kind of
> intelligence which directs ability to useful ends. Only by engaging in a joint
> activity, where one person's use of material and tools is concsiously referred
> to the use other persons are making of their capacities and appliances, is a
> social direction of disposition attained.
>
>      The natural or native impulses of the young do not agree with the
> life-customs of the group into which they are born. Consequently they have to be
> directed or guided. This control is not the same thing as physical compulsion;
> it consists in centering the impulses acting at any one time upon some specific
> end and in introducing an order of continuity into the  sequence of acts. The
> action of others is always influenced by deciding what stimuli shall call out
> their actions. But in some cases as in commands, prohibitions, approvals, and
> disapprovals, the stimuli proceed from persons with a direct view to influencing
> action. Since in such cases we are most conscious of controlling the action of
> others, we are likely to exaggerate the importance of this sort of control at
> the expense of a more permanent and effective method. The basic control resides
> in the nature of the situations in which the young take part. In social
> situations the young have to refer their way of acting to what others are doing
> and make it fit in. This directs their action to a common result, and gives an
> understanding common to the participants. For all mean the same thing, even when
> performing different acts. The common understanding of the means and ends of
> action is the essence of social control. It is indirect, or emotional and
> intellectual, not direct and personal. Moreover it is intrinsic to the
> disposition of the person, not external or coercive. To achieve this internal
> control through identity of interest and understanding is the business of
> education. While books and conversation can do much, these agencies are usually
> relied upon too exclusively. Schools require for their full efficiency more
> opportunity for conjoint activities in which those instructed take part, so they
> may acquire a social sense of their own powers and the materials and appliances
> used.
>

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