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PSYART  June 1998, Week 3

PSYART June 1998, Week 3

Subject:

Lakoff & Turner on "To a Solitary Disciple" (fwd)

From:

Norm Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Wed, 17 Jun 1998 11:04:46 EDT

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (239 lines)

In which we learn that formalism is by no means dead.  --Best, Norm

Date: Tue, 16 Jun 1998 18:42:24 -0500
From: [log in to unmask] (Bill Benzon)

I've been discussing Lakoff & Turner's analysis of "To A Solitary Disciple"
in another sector of cyberspace.  As this discussion bears on cognitive
psychology and literary studies I figured I post it here as well.

********

...some stuff...

Lakoff and Turner, in
fact, have some very interesting remarks about the form of "To a Solitary
Disciple", in particular about how structure of the poem "tracks" the
structure of a central image within the poem itself, that of a church's
steeple.

However, rereading their analysis in the context of Richard Cureton's
recent complaints about the neglect of temporality has suggested how their
"spatial" reading can be usefully supplemented by some consideration for
time.

They approach their consideration of form (in _More than Cool Reason_, pp.
155 ff.) By observing that the poem begins with a series of sentences of
the form "Rather X than Y." The first three strophes begin with "Rather X"
and the first two provide the concluding and contrasting  "than Y." The
third does not. What is worse, it overflows (their word, and a good one)
and careens into the rather different 4th strophe.  Thus:

12      Rather grasp
13      how the dark
14      converging lines
15      of the steeple
16      meet at the pinnacle--
17      perceive how
18      its little ornament
19      tries to stop them--

20      See how it fails!
21      See how the converging lines
22      of the hexagonal spire
23      escape upward--
24      receeding, dividing!
25      --sepals
26      that guard and contain
27      the flower!

They obvserve that the transition from 3rd to 4th strophe is the midpoint
of the poem (which is 42 lines long) and ask us to believe that "Though the
form of the sentence and the form of the steeple are two very different
kinds of form, we can understand them metaphorically as motions having the
same overall shape" (p. 156). While I agree that we can so understand the
sentence (and the poem) in that way, it is not clear to me that there is
any compelling reason for us to do so.

However, they have certainly brought our attention to a very important
aspect of this poem and I would like to add my 2 cents before continuing
with my reservations.

The theme is expectation.  As L&T note, "Rather" sets up a syntactic
expectation that further reading will give us two items in contrast.  The
first strophe is 6 lines long and begins with the word "rather." The
contrasting item is cued by "than" opening line 5.  The second strophe is 5
lines long and, like the first, begins with "rather." The contrasting
"than" begins the third line of this strophe.

At this point the syntatic expectation cued by "rather" has been joined by
another expectation, this one about how long it takes to fullfill a "Rather
X than Y" pair: roughly 5 or 6 lines (where lines are understood as
temporal units). We've been through two such units and now, so I assert,
expect that a third such unit will be in the same ball park.

We begin the third strope at line 13 (above) and it too begins with
"rather."  We know what to expect.  But three lines into the strophe (l.
14) and no "than" appears; five lines in (l. 16) and still no "than."
What's up? Six lines in and still no "than"; but we do get a break.  Line
17 provides us with a second verb,"perceive." That verb does not, of
course, give us the contrasting element which is, by now, long overdue. But
it does serve, in a way, to acknowledge that expectation by giving us
another syntactic unit.  This unit however, only prolongs the expectation
rather than satisfying it.

So, by the time we get to the end of this strophe (l. 19) we are well
toward the upper end for strophic length--8 lines; the 4th strophe is also
8 lines long; all the rest are shorter. And still the syntactic expectation
set up by "rather" has not been fullfilled.  Nor will it be.  With the
beginning of the 4th strophe the mood of the poem shifts radically, which
L&T understand. The first three strophes are rather detached and laconic.
The fourth is active (count all the verbs) and imperative. "See how it
fails" is rather different from "Rather notice, mon cher,/ that the moon.."
(ll. 1-2). What I think is going on is that the (failed) expectation "built
up" in the third strophe is "released" in this 4th strophe in a burst of
energy.  The remaining strophes are in the more detached a laconic mode of
the first 3 strophes (though perhaps we get a little hit of energy at the
begining of the final strophe).

None of this really contradicts L&T's account of the poem. It just points
out something they choose not to describe.  What they are interested in is
that we are witnessing a case of FORM IS MOTION, where FORM IS MOTION is
understood as a technical term designating some undescribed mental
apparatus that is doing all the work.  I rather imagine them contemplating
a (real or only imaginary) diagram that might look something like this
(where the numbers are line numbers in the poem):

         19/\20
        18/  \21
       17/    \22
        ........
      4/        \35
     3/          \36
    2/            \37
   1/              \38
                    \39
                     \40
                      \41
                       \42

The slanted lines, of course, are the point of the steeple. We read this
diagram starting from the lower left with the first line of the poem.  Line
by line we move up the steeple until we reach the pinnacle and WHAM! we
conclude the 3rd strophe and start back down the steeple in the fourth
strophe.

I must admit that I do find something compelling about that diagram.  The
analogy between the peak of the steeple and the break in the poem's
direction is a nice one.  But I do have to wonder whether that analogy
simply reflects the fact that we are very visual creatures and can come up
with nice diagrams for just about anything we please. It is fine that we
can think of paragraphs and sentences as having a motion which can be
advanced or stopped, but what is the nature of the mental mechanisms that
are actually producing or comprehending those sentences and paragraphs?
What is it doing that corresponds to those metaphorically perceived starts
and stops?

Thus I have to ask a fairly traditional question:  Is this what is Really
Going On in the poem, or is it something that L&T have put there by virtue
of their particular view of things?  If it is what is Really Going On, then
I would expect that a technical account of the FORM IS MOTION (FIM)
apparatus might include something like this:

In performing a poem, the FIM takes two arguments, an image schema and a
frame "focused on" the linguistic apparatus. The image schema and frame are
in correspondence with one another. To perform this particular poem, the
FIM conjures up a steeple image in the visual cortex. As the "inner eye"
scans along the edge of this steeple corresponding elements in the frame
are activated and the frame generates the actual words of the poem.

That seems pretty flimsy, but I see no way of avoiding something like this
if one wants to claim the structure of the poem Really Is Like the image of
the steeple that is also an element in the poem's stock of imagery.  It
seems to me that, in this particular case, FORM IS MOTION is serving as a
proxy for some apparatus that is so radically underspecified that invoking
it has little or no explanatory value.  This metaphor is disembodied and
ungrounded.

And yet, that moment in the poem is so like a steeple!

Ah...

*********

...some stuff...

The specific problem I'm dealing with is the relationship between sentence
units and strophes in "To a Solitary Disciple."  In some cases they
coincide one-for-one (first and second strophe) in other cases they are
radically at odds (the sixth strophe completes a sentence begun in the
second half of the fifth strophe). This is certainly not haphazard and I am
beginning to see my way to an argument that sentence/strophe de-synchrony
affects processing within the mental space.  What I'm not sure about is
whether to treat this effect as "orthogonal" to mental space structure or
as a clever exploitation of mental space structure.  If the latter I'd be
inclined to imagine two parallel "streams" of mental spaces, one having to
do with "form" (sentences) and the other with "content" (strophes). The
effect of "interrupting" the temporal course of a sentential space by
beginning a new strophe is to foreground the sentential material on both
sides of strophic division.

Consider the final three strophes, first as Williams wrote them, then as I
have rearranged them to eliminate the desychrony he created:

28      Observe
29      how motionless
30      the eaten moon
31      lies in the protecting lines.
32      It is true:
33      in the light colors
34      of morning

35      brown-stone and slate
36      shine orange and dark blue.

37      But observe
38      the oppressive weight
39      of the squat edifice!
40      Observe
41      the jasmine lightness
42      of the moon.

Notice how l. 35 pops out. & notice also that this is the first mention of
hard physical substance in the poem & that that physicality is picked up in
the final strophe ("oppresive weight").  Finally, note that strophe six
contrasts physical substance and color while the opening strophe contrasted
form "(Rather... tilted above...") with color ("than... shell pink.") and
that ll. 33 & 34 of strophe five reprises the color/morning contrast of
strophe two.  We are threading our way back through the material introduced
in the opening strophes, but with a "valence" that is different.

Now consider what happens when these lines are regrouped:

28      Observe
29      how motionless
30      the eaten moon
31      lies in the protecting lines.

32      It is true:
33      in the light colors
34      of morning
35      brown-stone and slate
36      shine orange and dark blue.

37      But observe
38      the oppressive weight
39      of the squat edifice!
40      Observe
41      the jasmine lightness
42      of the moon.

It seems to me that the oppressive weight of the edifice now has less force
and the moon less buoyancy.  This grouping is dead.


Bill B

William L. Benzon          201.217.1010
708 Jersey Ave. Apt. 2A    [log in to unmask]
Jersey City, NJ 07302 USA  http://www.newsavanna.com/wlb/

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September 2007, Week 3
September 2007, Week 2
September 2007, Week 1
August 2007, Week 5
August 2007, Week 4
August 2007, Week 3
August 2007, Week 2
August 2007, Week 1
July 2007, Week 5
July 2007, Week 4
July 2007, Week 3
July 2007, Week 2
July 2007, Week 1
June 2007, Week 5
June 2007, Week 4
June 2007, Week 3
June 2007, Week 2
June 2007, Week 1
May 2007, Week 5
May 2007, Week 4
May 2007, Week 3
May 2007, Week 2
May 2007, Week 1
April 2007, Week 5
April 2007, Week 4
April 2007, Week 3
April 2007, Week 2
April 2007, Week 1
March 2007, Week 5
March 2007, Week 4
March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 4

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