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PSYART  January 1999, Week 5

PSYART January 1999, Week 5

Subject:

Contra Moessner on Life is Beautiful

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 29 Jan 1999 08:27:51 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (172 lines)

From:
       "Richard H. Armstrong" <[log in to unmask]>

Thu 5:01

I respond to this post by Victoria Moessner:

>I found Life is Beautiful one of the most offensive films that I have
>seen lately: superficial trivialization of the darkest side of human
>nature, out for capturing an audience and making money.
>All of the old stereotypes are there: the sappy, effeminate, superficial
>Italian and Jewish male, the innocent,cute little boy, the cute little
>game, the nasty Germans (or were they really German speakers from South
>Tirol??, that is Italians?), the mother sharing her family's fate, even
>though she could have saved herself (though true to the fairy tale
>stereotype, the good woman survives), the
>implausability of a boy surviving in such an incredibly clean and
>orderly camp as the only child in a barrack for adult men,the nice white
>all-American GIJo in the tank at the end of the film (for the lucrative
>American market) who at least stopped short of looking like Patton.
> The only thing that somewhat redeemed the film for me was the scene
>in which the father was supposedly shot. The shooting was not shown and
>when the guard returned, one had the fleating impression that his face
>was that of the father's.
>Victoria Moessner

I want to thank you for confirming my sense of the risks involved in
this
comic enterprise.  I had no doubt that some people would take it this
way,
and you certainly have confirmed that intuition.  I was more surprised
by
the fact that most people I know who have seen the film (ca. a mere 12
people) had a reaction similar to mine.  But I am not advancing that as
an
argument that we are right, so please don't misunderstand me!

I think that your reading does not take seriously the frame of the fiaba
or
fairy tale in which it was cast.  You may see that as a mere ploy or
excuse, but in Italian culture, the fiaba often has a more profound
literary use, one that merges imaginative power with serious, even
tragic
themes.  (Yes this does happen elsewhere, too, but I am talking
specifically about the tradition of Calvino).  The stereotypes are
indeed
conventional, as are many of the comic devices used; that's what amazes
me,
for this is much riskier than an acrid, grotesque and grimacing comedy
suitable for victims of the Holocaust and their persecutors.  (The
wicked
musical ironies of Shostakovich come to mind as the kind of bleak humor
one
has come to expect from the era).  Our first narrative and visual
encounter
with the Holocaust was in the documentary genre; that was, historically,
extremely important.  But even the Holocaust has come to live in world
culture as a tale; yes, it has a documented historical reality, but it
has
and will always have (I hope) a narrative function, a place in the
world's
imaginary.  Hence this encounter with it as a fiaba.

In its very conventionality lies the strength of the film, to my mind:
Benigni is the "matto" or "pazzo" the crazy fool whose ingenious
nonsense
is the ONLY thing that makes sense and gives strength when the world has
gone utterly mad (matto). Yes, it is a form of denial, but a creative
denial engaged with the task of survival, unlike his uncle's resigned
project of maintaining his personal dignity in spite of all.  [they both
die, but Benigni's character saves his son from the deep terror that
surrounds him; in nuce, isn't that part of the funciton of a fiaba?]
Yes,
the woman is a "principessa," but how many princesses in a fairy tale
voluntarily climb onto a cattlecar to go to a concentration camp?
Surely
that is not stereotypical!  That the child is cute and typical is
terribly
important in this context; as the film alludes to without showing us,
these
very conventionally cute children are being exterminated like vermin;
hence
the ominous moment when all the other children disappear.  I found the
very
obliquity of that aspect moving and terrifying, for who can truly
imagine
the extermination of children?

As for German stereotypes, you forget that Italians (and Spaniards) must
face up to the fact that fascism was a part of their society as well.
There are plenty of good Italian fascist stereotypes in that film to
show
that this is not simply anti-German sentiment (which certainly does
exist
in Italy).  Italians can never demonize the Germans to the extent that,
say, the Greeks, can because of their own historical complicity with
fascism.  I found many of the Germans in the camp sequence very
tired-looking, as if they have wearied of their role of being
unmitigatedly
evil.  (I did notice the odd accent as well.  I wonder what a casting
call
for movie Nazi's looks like in Europe!  Probably a lot of enthusiastic
Austrians... Entschuldigung!)

But isn't part of the true psychological horror of the Nazi era the fact
that people behaved like stereotypes instead of individuals?  They
actually
believed in essentialist racial myths and Volkish destinies, lost all
sense
of nuance and individual conscience, and gave in far, far too much to
the
screaming aggressions of the superego?  That they worked like machines
in
the deathcamps, miraculously overcoming even the basic physical
revulsion
(depicted ever so slightly in one moment in the film) of mass-murder?
Can
we expected "nuanced" Nazis?  There was the character of the doctor who
loses his mind, a concession to the idea that not all Germans were
capable
of this horrific task, yet were not mentally able to resist it
significantly.  My mother-in-law grew up in Spain when fascist ideology
was
still very much alive, and I can tell you that her categorical
imperative
to live up to very abstract, petty, and even silly ideals inculcated in
her
by the Seccio'n Femenina of the Falange are precisely what make
her...hard
to live with.

As for the tank and GIs; I do think that must be understood from the
child's perspective.  These men might as well come from Mars.  They
could
be Green and Purple and it would still make sense.  If that is a cynical
ploy on Benigni's part to play up to the American market, well then
shame
on him. Perhaps making the film a bit more surreal at the end would have
given us a better sense of the child's perspective. But I took it all
the
same as a child's view of the universe which, thanks to his matto father
and in spite of all, makes perfect sense to HIM.  Abbiamo vinto!  We
won!
What an absurd thing to say at the end of the Holocaust!  Yet in the
context of this fiaba, it manages, for me, to make sense.

Again, I will say that the very conventionality and apparent
superficiality
are what make the film amazingly risky.  But for me, it manages to
negotiate the psychological and moral minefield successfully.  If there
are
those who are not satisfied and refuse to laugh at a concentration camp
comedy, I console myself with the knowledge that at least the Holocaust
remains no laughing matter.

        Richard Armstrong



++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

        Richard Hamilton Armstrong
        Assistant Professor of Classics
        Department of Modern and Classical Languages
        University of Houston
        Houston, TX 77204-3784

        http://www.hfac.uh.edu/mcl/faculty/armstrong/home

        Office Telephone: 713/743-3045
        Office Fax: 713/743-0935
        email: [log in to unmask]

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October 2005, Week 1
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July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
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June 2005, Week 1
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May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
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April 2005, Week 1
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March 2005, Week 1
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February 2005, Week 1
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January 2005, Week 3
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January 2005, Week 1
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November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
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October 2004, Week 3
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October 2004, Week 1
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July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
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June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
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April 2004, Week 5
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April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
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March 2004, Week 3
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July 2003, Week 5
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June 2002, Week 1
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April 2002, Week 5
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April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
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March 2002, Week 1
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February 2002, Week 1
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October 2001, Week 1
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September 2001, Week 3
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September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
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July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
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