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PSYART  January 1999, Week 5

PSYART January 1999, Week 5

Subject:

SF Chronicle on Neuroscience Conference

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Fri, 29 Jan 1999 09:01:33 -0500

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (196 lines)

Researchers Dive Into Terrain of the Brain
They explore netherworld of illusion, dreams
Carl T. Hall, Chronicle Science Writer
Thursday, January 28, 1999
1999 San Francisco Chronicle



Brain researchers are tackling some of the most elusive dimensions of
the
human experience, plunging headlong into such age- old mysteries as art,
illusion and the meaning of dreams.

In a series of reports this week from the frontiers of neuroscience,
experts in high-tech brain imaging claim to have traced some of the
biological roots of consciousness. They even explained their theories on
why children laugh when tickled and why they see faces in passing
clouds.

``Neuroscience is beginning to get into some of the deepest questions of
the mind and what it means to be human,'' said Stephen Kosslyn, a
prominent
brain researcher at Harvard.

The latest findings were outlined during the annual meeting of the
American
Association for the Advancement of Science, which concluded this week in
Anaheim.

Some neuroscientists found common ground with Freud. ``Psychoanalysis
and
neuroscience are converging,'' declared New York psychiatrist Leon
Hoffman.
He noted that recent experiments seem to buttress 100-year-old Freudian
notions about wish fulfillment and revelations of fear in dreams.

Dr. Allen Braun, a researcher at the National Institute on Deafness and
Other Communication Disorders, summarized results of recent PET scan
studies revealing how dreams light up many different parts of the brain.
Activation of the visual cortex corresponds to the intense hallucinatory
imagery of the dreamscape, while at the same time, memories are arising
in
the temporal lobe and hippocampus. Nerves firing in the ``limbic core''
explain the heightened emotional tone.

Higher-level brain regions are notably quiet in the dream state, Braun
observed, accounting for the typical dreamer's loss of critical insight,
decreased ability to shift attention and impaired logic.

DRIFTING TO THE SURFACE

In effect, self-control and inhibition slip a notch or two, allowing
inner
drives and ``emotionally salient memories'' to drift into consciousness.
The overall pattern of brain activity implies that dreams may well offer
``direct, albeit distorted, access to unconscious processes,'' Braun
concluded.

Michael Posner, director of the Sackler Institute for Human Brain
Development at Cornell Medical College in New York, proposed at least a
partial explanation of how consciousness arises in the first place.
Through
elaborate experiments with infants and brain imaging, Posner and his
colleagues traced the roots of ``attentional networks'' to a brain
structure called the anterior cingulate gyrus.

PROTECTIVE FILTER

It wraps like a protective filter over the deep-brain wells of emotion
known as the limbic system. Later, more elaborate networks of
``cognitive
control'' build on the early wiring laid down in the anterior cingulate.
Consciousness is many things, Posner noted, but part of it has to do
with
the ability to guide attention, sift through competing sensations and
edit
responses. It all may ultimately lead to what he described as ``an
ongoing
sense of self.'' ``Consciousness partly has to do with deciding what to
think about,'' Posner said.

MINING THE WORLD OF ILLUSION

V.S. Ramachandran of the Center for Brain and Cognition at the
University
of California at San Diego led a panel of researchers venturing into the
realm of art and illusion. Deliberate distortions work in painting and
sculpture because they reflect how the brain decodes visual clues. The
system is wired to recognize objects quickly -- a fact regularly
exploited
in the creative arts.

``The brain uses shortcuts,'' Ramachandran noted. ``Brains and artists
know
which lines count.'' Brains also know what's a genuine threat to safety.
So
it's no wonder a child laughs when a parent sets up an apparent threat
by
approaching a child with hands outstretched and feigning ferocity. The
child delights in the relief of discovering that it's no threat at all,
just a bout of tickling. Loud laughter, Ramachandran suggested, must
have
started when cave dwellers needed to signal ``no danger'' to others
around
them. As for visual signals, all it takes are a few sparse cues to draw
things out from the memory centers. The artist provides a few lines, the
brain finds a prototype and fills in the blanks. So a little play of
light
and shadow in a passing cloud are enough to conjure up intense stored
imagery, noted Patrick Cavanaugh of Harvard.

AUDITORY ILLUSIONS

Diana Deutsch of the University of California at San Diego brought a
keyboard to the science meeting to demonstrate elaborate auditory
illusions, playing sequences of tones to illustrate how the brain can
play
tricks.

In one such illusion, which Deutsch calls the ``tritone paradox,'' the
same
listener hears a sequence of notes as a descending scale when played in
one
key, but as an ascending scale in a different key. The explanation has
to
do with how the brain interprets a note in relationship to others.

Deutsch found in a study of Vietnamese-speaking immigrants that
perceptions
are heavily influenced by the pitch range of the listener's speaking
voice
and auditory experiences from early childhood. It seems a ``template''
is
built early on, and this influences how sounds are processed throughout
life.

It all seemed rather arbitrary, perhaps suggesting that one can never
quite
be sure of anything at all, or at least no more certain than Alice in
Wonderland. But Deutsch said there's no reason to fret about the
apparent
failures of the human perceptual system. They actually signal the
brain's
uncanny ability to tease meaning from cacophony. The system may be
fooled
under certain circumstances, but the wiring generally serves us well,
she
said.

``It helps us interpret our environment more effectively,'' she said.

ROOTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS

New studies of the brain in action are beginning to shed light on some
of
the abiding mysteries of the mind. Here's one explanation of how
``consciousness'' may arise from neural networks shaped in early
childhood:


NEWBORN DISTRESS

During the first year of life, the infant struggles to cope with
conflicting sensations and unchecked emotional distress arising from the
limbic system deep in the brain.

LEARNING TO COPE

Activity in a brain region called the anterior cingulate gyrus begins
during the first year of life as the child gradually comes to grips with
emotional signals.

CONSCIOUSNESS

As the child matures, the anterior cingulate forms the foundation for a
system of ``cognitive control.'' The child learns to focus attention,
regulate responses and correct errors-building blocks for an ongoing
sense
of self.

--Limbic system: This ring-shaped system inside the brain surrounding
the
thalamus and brain stem, mediates the expression of instincts, drives
and
emotions. Sensations such as sight and smell and the formation of
memories
are also influenced here.

Cingulate gyrus: Part of limbic system. Thalamus: Acts as a relay system
from spinal cord to brain. Brain stem: Controls basic survival functions
like breathing and digestion.

Source: University of Oregon; Cornell Medical College; The Human Mind
Explained by Susan A. Greenfield; The Human Body by Charles Clayman
CHRONICLE GRAPHIC
1999 San Francisco Chronicle Page A2

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March 2002, Week 5
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March 2002, Week 1
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October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
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September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
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August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
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July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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December 1998, Week 5
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December 1997, Week 5
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June 1997, Week 4

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