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PSYART  April 1999, Week 2

PSYART April 1999, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Meaning in Music II

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 8 Apr 1999 16:57:42 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (154 lines)

From:
         [log in to unmask] (Bill Benzon)

3:00 PM

>From:
>         Reuven Tsur <[log in to unmask]>
>
>Wed 10:19 AM
>


>
>I am particularly worried by such suggestions as the following:
>
>> I
>> note that the opening of  Chopin's Scherzo No. 3 in C sharp minor, Op.
>> 39,
>> seems to [be] a conversation between two imaginary agents (Maus's term), one
>> forceful and imperious, perhaps male?, and the other  relaxed,
>> expectant,
>> perhaps reflective (female?) , but then growing animated.
>
>This seems to me an attempt at concretising something whose very essence
>is to stay at a much more abstract level. There are, to be sure, in the
>music, side by side two qualities that can be described as "forceful and
>imperious" and as "relaxed, expectant", played up against one another.
>The "two imaginary agents" seem to be too concrete; and the parentheses
>"perhaps male?" and "female?" even more so. I don't mean to say that you
>cannot *project* such things into the music; only that such a projection
>is rather arbitrary, less than warranted by the music; there are no
>constraints in the music that would uniquely identify, or even vaguely
>suggest, such agents.

OK.  But how do I talk about these two qualities without thus
"projecting"?
I could provide descriptions in the jargon of music notation and theory,
talking about consonance and dissonance and semi-quavers and wide
intervals
and such.  But that rather misses the point.  And the point is that the
structural devices of musical sound, as described in that terminology,
are
being put in service of something else.  It's the something else I want
to
talk about, at least to the point of indicating that it is there.  The
language I would like to use is that of neuropsychology, but that
language
isn't up to the job.

You may recall the experiments Michotte did on perceptual causality.
The
subject sees two simple geometric figures against a background.  One or
both are moving.  Their paths cross.  If the spatio-temporal
characteristics of their paths are just so, then one will be seen to
cause
the other to move.  If their paths are not just so, then no causal
relationship will be inferred.

Where did the causality come from?  There is not, in fact, any causal
interaction between the two forms, as there would be in the case of one
billiard ball being impacted by the other.  Presumably what is going on
is
that the neural "module" that informs us of the interactions of billiard
balls and such is interpreting this superficially similar (but really
quite
different) information as though it specified the interaction of freely
moving 3D objects.  Michotte has tricked this module into giving false
results and thereby betraying something about its inner workings.  We
have
"projected" causality into a scene where there is none.  I think it
would
be better simply to say that we have perceived causality where there is
none.

Well, I'm saying that there is some social interaction circuitry in the
brain that is being tricked in a similar way.  (For a discussion of this
circuitry, see Simon Baron-Cohne, Mindblindness, MIT Press 1995.)  The
"music analyzers" are passing it information which it then treats as
information specifying social interaction.


>There is a sound movement in the music that has
>certain structural resemblances to human emotions;

I don't know whether you are familiar with the work of Manfred Clynes
(Sentics, Doubleday 1977), but he gives evidence that human emotion can
be
rather directly "encoded" into musical sound. Now, you may want to say
that
Clynes is talking about music having "certain structural resemblances to
human emotions," but the nervous system can't tell the difference
between
the patten in the music and the pattern in touch or a vocal cry.

>but it is, most
>conspicuously, detached from any agent. Though Bill is one of the most
>experienced listeners to music I know, the need to assume the presence
>of such "imaginary agents" is characteristic of the naive approach of
>the novices.

I'm not saying such agents are really there.  I'm only saying that the
brain reacts as though they were.  The brain has been tricked.  Of
course,
we need to understand just how it is that the brain has been tricked.

[snip]

>The
>recognition of an emotion leads quite frequently to arousal of an
>emotion of some kind, to some degree, although, I submit, the
>experienced emotion will not necessarily be the same as the recognized
>one. This distinction may suggest the fundamental difference between
>emotional qualities in an aesthetic object and human emotions arising in
>social interaction. While mechanisms evolved in the service of the
>latter *may* underlie the former, it is not obvious how much information
>can be transferred between them; or if at all -- as the analogy of
>language and tool-making may suggest.

The question of whether or not emotions aroused by aesthetic objects are
the same as those aroused in real social interaction is a fairly
standard
one, and one I did not address in the material I posted to this list.
For
those interested in a fairly specific version of this question I
recommend
two articles in Jenefer Robinson, _Music and Meaning_ (Cornell UP 1997):

Jerrold Levinson, "Music and Negative Emotion," pp. 215-241.

Stephen Davis, "Why Listen to Sad Music If It Makes One Feel So Sad,"
pp.
242-253.

My current guess is that the "sadness circuitry" activated in music is
the
same circuitry as that activated in occasions of real interpersonal
loss,
but the general neural context is quite different and so the overall
"feeling" is different. If one's friend dies, the loss marks an
irrevocable
change in one's life.  But if on goes to a concert and listens to a
piece
of music that activates the "grief circuitry," that's quite different.
One
has chosen to go to the concert, one is warm and perhaps even
comfortable
(depending on the seating), and one may well be with a beloved companion
or
two.  So even as the music is banging away on the grief circuits, one's
love and security circuits are also well-stimulated.

William L. Benzon          201.217.1010
708 Jersey Ave. Apt. 2A    [log in to unmask]
Jersey City, NJ 07302 USA  http://www.newsavanna.com/wlb/

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June 2004, Week 4
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April 2004, Week 1
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March 2004, Week 1
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November 2003, Week 1
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October 2003, Week 1
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October 2001, Week 4
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October 2001, Week 1
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September 2001, Week 1
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August 2001, Week 1
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July 2001, Week 1
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