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PSYART  April 1999, Week 2

PSYART April 1999, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Meaning in Music II

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Sun, 11 Apr 1999 17:31:22 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (157 lines)

From:
         [log in to unmask] (Bill Benzon)

9:29 AM

>From:
>         Reuven Tsur <[log in to unmask]>
>
>2:57 AM
>
>> The
>> subject sees two simple geometric figures against a background.  One or
>> both are moving.  Their paths cross.  If the spatio-temporal
>> characteristics of their paths are just so, then one will be seen to
>> cause
>> the other to move.  If their paths are not just so, then no causal
>> relationship will be inferred.
>> Where did the causality come from?  There is not, in fact, any causal
>> interaction between the two forms, as there would be in the case of one
>> billiard ball being impacted by the other.
>
>
>I have thought on why the application of these very convincing findings
>to music seems to me counter-intuitive. Perhaps the answer lies (and I
>am not sure enough of that) in the conspicuous cognitive difference
>between things that do have stable visual shapes and what Ehrenzweig
>calls "thing-free qualities".
>

I think there is something to this.  I think, in general, that our
conceptual world is more heavily grounded in visual metaphors than
auditory.  An "auditory agent" is a very strange creature indeed.

However, you may be aware of the phenomenon of apparent motion in
vision.
A typical stimulus would consist of a horizontal row of small lights
against a dark background. If the lights are blinked on and then off,
one
after the other, left to right, and at the appropriate tempo, the
observer
will see one light moving continuously from left to right.  I have just
read a very interesting article about a similar phenomenon in music:

Robert O. Gjerdingen, "Apparent Motion in Music?" in Niall Griffith and
Peter M. Todd, _Musical Networks_, MIT Press, 1999, pp. 141-173.  This
is
revised from Robert O. Gjerdingen, "Apparent Motion in Music?", _Music
Perception_, 1994, 11, 334-370.

Gjerdingen takes a neural network model designed to simulate the visual
effect and revises it to simulate a number of phenomena in the
perception
of musical sound, phenomena mostly having to do with "streaming." Given
a
sequence of tones, how do they "hang together" in time>  Consider the
following sequence of pitches, where G' is an octave above G and all the
other pitches are between these two:

G G' A E C B C

In the extreme, there are two ways of hearing this sequence, and the
difference has to do with tempo, attack, and loudness.  One extreme
gives
the impression of a single stream moving up and down, thus:


     /\
    /  \      /\
   /    \    /  \_
  /      \  /     \/
 /        \/
/

The other extreme gives the impression of two converging lines, one high
and moving down, the other low and moving up:

   ___
      \___
         _\___
     ___/
____/

Neither of these is "really" there in the stimulus, which is just a
sequence of pitches.  The the auditory system seems to "want" to group
the
pitches together in some way.

There is an interesting example of a musical illusion based on such
streaming effects in the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's 6th symphony.
The
movment opens with a slow melody played by the violins.  The pitches of
one
hears as this melody are as follows (for the 1st 2 bars):

F#5 E5 D5 C#5 B4 C#5

[The numerals indicate the octave for the pitch. Thus E5 is an octave
higher than E4. By convention, octaves are presumed to start with C.
Thus
C5 is one note higher than B4.]

Note that this is a smoothly descending sequence until the last C#,
which
is, of course, above the immediately preceeding B. However no instrument
is
playing that sequence of pitches.  Rather, the first violins are playing
this sequence of pitches:

B4 E5 G#5 C#5 E#4 C#5

And the second violins are playing this sequence of pitches:

F#5 A#4 D5 E#4 B4 E4

Note that both of these sequences move up and down through wide
intervals.
In this situation it is easier for the ear to construct two more or less
parallel sequences of pitches, one higher than the other. The notes one
hears as the melody line thus alternate between the second and first
violin
parts.  I suspect that if the second violin part were, instead, played
by a
trumpet, then one would hear two criss-crossing pitch streams as
written.
The trumpet and violin sound so different that it would be difficult for
the ear to organize first a trumpet note, then a violin note, etc. into
a
single line.

********

Now, apparent visual motion is not the phenomenon that Michotte
demonstrated, though they are similar in that they both depend on
specific
spatial-temporal organization of stimuli.  Similarly, auditory streaming
is
not what's going on in the case of our imaginary auditory agents.  In
fact
it seems differ from auditory streaming much more than Michotte's visual
causality seems to differ from apparent visual motion.  So you are
perhaps
correct in resisting the application of Michotte's results to the
auditory
situation.

If that argues against my original position, so be it.  The fact of the
matter is, I don't yet have much invested in this notion of virtual
agents
in music.  That is a notion invented by others and I am happy to use it
as
a starting point in a line of inquiry.  But I see no reason to think
I'll
end up there a year or two from now.

William L. Benzon          201.217.1010
708 Jersey Ave. Apt. 2A    [log in to unmask]
Jersey City, NJ 07302 USA  http://www.newsavanna.com/wlb/

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July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
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