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PSYART  April 1999, Week 2

PSYART April 1999, Week 2

Subject:

Re: Meaning in Music II

From:

Norman Holland <[log in to unmask]>

Reply-To:

Institute for Psychological Study of the Arts <[log in to unmask]>

Date:

Thu, 8 Apr 1999 10:00:16 -0400

Content-Type:

text/plain

Parts/Attachments:

Parts/Attachments

text/plain (193 lines)

From:
         Reuven Tsur <[log in to unmask]>

Wed 10:19 AM

Bill Benson's paper gave me a new perspective on what I have been
thinking about emotional qualities in music; and I expect this
perspective to be a source of new insights into the problem, during the
next few years. However, behind these perspectives (as behind all
psychological or neurological explanations of art) a grave danger lurks:
that art may be reduced to something that is very different from art. I
don't mean by this to discourage such explorations, but to insist that
one should be on the alert to maximise the benefits from the merits of
this approach, and to minimise the damage from its shortcomings.

I am particularly worried by such suggestions as the following:

> I
> note that the opening of  Chopin's Scherzo No. 3 in C sharp minor, Op.
> 39,
> seems to [be] a conversation between two imaginary agents (Maus's term), one
> forceful and imperious, perhaps male?, and the other  relaxed,
> expectant,
> perhaps reflective (female?) , but then growing animated.

This seems to me an attempt at concretising something whose very essence
is to stay at a much more abstract level. There are, to be sure, in the
music, side by side two qualities that can be described as "forceful and
imperious" and as "relaxed, expectant", played up against one another.
The "two imaginary agents" seem to be too concrete; and the parentheses
"perhaps male?" and "female?" even more so. I don't mean to say that you
cannot *project* such things into the music; only that such a projection
is rather arbitrary, less than warranted by the music; there are no
constraints in the music that would uniquely identify, or even vaguely
suggest, such agents. There is a sound movement in the music that has
certain structural resemblances to human emotions; but it is, most
conspicuously, detached from any agent. Though Bill is one of the most
experienced listeners to music I know, the need to assume the presence
of such "imaginary agents" is characteristic of the naive approach of
the novices.

Bill and myself seem to have similar basic assumptions; but apply to
them opposite strategies. One of my basic assumptions concerning
cognitive poetics is that response to poetry turns to aesthetic ends
adaptation devices that were initially evolved for other purposes. Bill
says essentially the same about music, and in greater detail, in the
following passage:
>
> Thus I feel we must consider the real
> possibility
> that the brain structures we use to track and integrate the complexity
> of
> Beethoven's Ninth Symphony arose in evolutionary history to navigate the
> subtleties of social interaction. Whatever the case, it is certain that
> we
> are making sense of Beethoven with brain structures that evolved for
> some
> other reason or reasons.


George Klein distinguished between leveling and sharpening cognitive
strategies (resulting in different personality types, "levelers" and
"sharpeners"). I don't know about Bill, but I am certainly a sharpener;
whereas Bill deploys in his paper leveling strategies in the respect
under discussion. If A is similar to B, levelers would be prone to
foreground the common ingredients between A and B; sharpeners would
foreground the elements by which they differ. One of the effects of
Bill's passage on Chopin is to push the similarity between emotions
arousing from music and social interaction beyond what we know; whereas
I am asking: "If they are so similar, why are they so different?".

My above formulation of cognitive poetics was suggested by Liberman
(1970: 321), who at the end of an important theoretical statement of
research done at the Haskins Laboratories says: "One can reasonably
expect to discover whether, in developing linguistic behavior, Nature
has invented new physiological devices, or simply turned old ones to new
ends". This may offer an illuminating analogue to our problem. Consider
the belief of some researchers that the lateralisation of the brain grew
out from tool making. The right hand is typically connected to the left
hemisphere, whereas the left hand to the right hemisphere. What is more,
fine movements of the fingers on both hands are governed by the left
hemisphere. Now the tool-maker had to apply crude force with one hand,
and fine movements with the other, giving rise to a differentiation
between the two hemispheres. Those researchers also believe that in
developing linguistic behavior, it is this neuro-physiological
development of lateralisation that Nature turned to linguistic ends. I
don't know how well-founded this belief is. But I wish to use it to
sharpen the nature of our problem. Suppose it is the case "that the
brain structures we use to track and integrate the complexity of
Beethoven's Ninth Symphony arose in evolutionary history to navigate the
subtleties of social interaction". On the analogy with lateralisation,
social interaction wouldn't necessarily illuminate Beethoven's Ninth
Symphony anymore than tool making would illuminate our linguistic
behaviour. To be sure, "social interaction" is inherently more closely
related to the "emotional qualities" of music than tool making to
linguistic behaviour; but we are facing here a rather disconcerting
question: does this relationship warrant the introduction of "imaginary
agents", or onely the noticing of the similar structures of human
emotions and of the pitch movement of the music? No amount of research
on neurological processes will help us decide on this matter: we will
have to rely on what we think we know about the nature of music.
At any rate, the evidence brought from some blues performances should be
taken with a grain of salt:

> We can find a
> similar
> structure in some blues performances. Consider, for example, the
> recordings
> that Bessie Smith made with Louis Armstrong. Smith would sing a line of
> blues then Armstrong would play a counter line on his trumpet. Even
> when
> the beginning of his line overlapped the end of her line the performance
> logic was basically that of call-and-response.
> One could argue, however, that this two-performer call-and-response was
> derived from a one performer call-and-response mode of blues
> performance.
> The classic form of acoustic blues called for a single performer, a
> singer
> accompanying himself on the guitar. The performer would sing a line--"I
> woke up in the mornin"--and then play a responding line on the
> guitar--"du
> duht duh dut dadut dwee ba duhtduh be doww" and so on. There is a clear
> sense of dialog between the voice and the guitar, as though the guitar
> enacted the role of one agent while the voice enacted the role of
> another.
> Given such examples I take it as given that music routinely has a level
> of
> structure and intention that is completely missing from standard music
> theory. While it may be difficult precisely to characterize just how
> music
> implements interpersonal attitudes, desires, and feelings, I am willing
> to
> believe that it does so.


These structures need not suggest that music is derived from some
dialogic social interaction. They may be conceived of, on the contrary,
as of some "secondary elaborations" intended to sharpen the contrasts
built into the "agent-free" music structures. We find a similar
"two-performer call-and-response" mode in Baroque music, in the echo
plays (as, e.g., in the fourth cantata in Bach's Weinachts Oratorio).
But there it is perceived, precisely, as some highly artificial
"mannerism", deviating from the more abstract natural course of music.

Finally, in a seminal paper on "Emotion and Emotional Qualities" R. W.
Hepburn quotes some experimental findings of the kind Benson quotes from
Ferdinand Knobloch; but he uses it to make a distinction which Benson
doesn't make. Whether people do or don't agree on interpersonal
tendencies displayed by a number of musical fragments, depends on the
question they are asked. When they are asked "what emotions does the
music evoke in you", they usually don't agree; but they tend to be in
agreement when asked "what emotional qualities you perceive in the
music". This difference brings out, precisely, the *difference* between
experiencing a genuine human emotion, and perceivng an aesthetic
quality. Accordingly, .i(.Hepburn; makes a useful distinction between
experiencing and recognizing an emotion, distinguishing between two
vocabularies, with "interestingly different 'logics'". Terms like
"vivacious passage", and "lugubrious phrase", contain a clearer
descriptive content than, say, "exciting passage", "thrilling section"
and the like. The former expressions report on the detection of an
emotional quality, the latter on the successful arousal of an emotion.
But "it is oversimple to speak of two distinct vocabularies, for there
are shadings, gradations, from one another" (Hepburn, 1968: 91-92). The
recognition of an emotion leads quite frequently to arousal of an
emotion of some kind, to some degree, although, I submit, the
experienced emotion will not necessarily be the same as the recognized
one. This distinction may suggest the fundamental difference between
emotional qualities in an aesthetic object and human emotions arising in
social interaction. While mechanisms evolved in the service of the
latter *may* underlie the former, it is not obvious how much information
can be transferred between them; or if at all -- as the analogy of
language and tool-making may suggest.

I feel somewhat presumptuous in writing these comments, since Bill knows
a lot more than I do both about music and neurology. But I hope they
will be received as well-taken and constructive. I am no expert on
music, but I have made some methodological work on the problem of
"reductionism". In an appendix to my book _On Metaphoring_, "The TOT
Phenomenon and Thing-Destruction -- a Psycholinguistic Model for
Poetry", I argued that in the tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon (when one has
a word on the tip of his tongue) and in poetry the same linguistic
mechanisms are exploited for different purposes: for psycho-pathological
purposes in the former, and for aesthetic purposes in the latter. In
another appendix to the same book, "Art, Language, Lateralization", I
made an attempt to distinguish between those cases in which talk on
lateralisation merely translates descriptions from a critical vocabulary
into a brain-language, and those cases in which it yields genuine
insight into the nature of poetic language. I tried to make a similar
exercise with reference to sound effects and acoustic information in
poetry in my paper "The Sound Affects of Poetry" (_Pragmatics and
Cognition_, 1997), which I included with the required adjustments as an
appendix in my recent book on poetic rhythm.
Reuven Tsur

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March 2007, Week 3
March 2007, Week 2
March 2007, Week 1
February 2007, Week 4
February 2007, Week 3
February 2007, Week 2
February 2007, Week 1
January 2007, Week 5
January 2007, Week 4
January 2007, Week 3
January 2007, Week 2
January 2007, Week 1
December 2006, Week 5
December 2006, Week 4
December 2006, Week 3
December 2006, Week 2
December 2006, Week 1
November 2006, Week 5
November 2006, Week 4
November 2006, Week 3
November 2006, Week 2
November 2006, Week 1
October 2006, Week 5
October 2006, Week 4
October 2006, Week 3
October 2006, Week 2
October 2006, Week 1
September 2006, Week 5
September 2006, Week 4
September 2006, Week 3
September 2006, Week 2
September 2006, Week 1
August 2006, Week 5
August 2006, Week 4
August 2006, Week 3
August 2006, Week 2
August 2006, Week 1
July 2006, Week 5
July 2006, Week 4
July 2006, Week 3
July 2006, Week 2
July 2006, Week 1
June 2006, Week 5
June 2006, Week 4
June 2006, Week 3
June 2006, Week 2
June 2006, Week 1
May 2006, Week 5
May 2006, Week 4
May 2006, Week 3
May 2006, Week 2
May 2006, Week 1
April 2006, Week 5
April 2006, Week 4
April 2006, Week 3
April 2006, Week 2
April 2006, Week 1
March 2006, Week 5
March 2006, Week 4
March 2006, Week 3
March 2006, Week 2
March 2006, Week 1
February 2006, Week 4
February 2006, Week 3
February 2006, Week 2
February 2006, Week 1
January 2006, Week 5
January 2006, Week 4
January 2006, Week 3
January 2006, Week 2
January 2006, Week 1
December 2005, Week 5
December 2005, Week 3
December 2005, Week 2
December 2005, Week 1
November 2005, Week 5
November 2005, Week 4
November 2005, Week 3
November 2005, Week 2
November 2005, Week 1
October 2005, Week 5
October 2005, Week 4
October 2005, Week 3
October 2005, Week 2
October 2005, Week 1
September 2005, Week 5
September 2005, Week 4
September 2005, Week 3
September 2005, Week 2
September 2005, Week 1
August 2005, Week 5
August 2005, Week 4
August 2005, Week 3
August 2005, Week 2
August 2005, Week 1
July 2005, Week 5
July 2005, Week 4
July 2005, Week 3
July 2005, Week 2
July 2005, Week 1
June 2005, Week 4
June 2005, Week 3
June 2005, Week 2
June 2005, Week 1
May 2005, Week 4
May 2005, Week 3
May 2005, Week 2
May 2005, Week 1
April 2005, Week 5
April 2005, Week 4
April 2005, Week 3
April 2005, Week 2
April 2005, Week 1
March 2005, Week 5
March 2005, Week 4
March 2005, Week 3
March 2005, Week 2
March 2005, Week 1
February 2005, Week 4
February 2005, Week 3
February 2005, Week 2
February 2005, Week 1
January 2005, Week 5
January 2005, Week 4
January 2005, Week 3
January 2005, Week 2
January 2005, Week 1
December 2004, Week 5
December 2004, Week 4
December 2004, Week 3
December 2004, Week 2
December 2004, Week 1
November 2004, Week 5
November 2004, Week 4
November 2004, Week 3
November 2004, Week 2
November 2004, Week 1
October 2004, Week 5
October 2004, Week 4
October 2004, Week 3
October 2004, Week 2
October 2004, Week 1
September 2004, Week 5
September 2004, Week 4
September 2004, Week 3
September 2004, Week 2
September 2004, Week 1
August 2004, Week 5
August 2004, Week 3
August 2004, Week 2
August 2004, Week 1
July 2004, Week 5
July 2004, Week 4
July 2004, Week 3
July 2004, Week 2
July 2004, Week 1
June 2004, Week 4
June 2004, Week 3
June 2004, Week 2
June 2004, Week 1
May 2004, Week 5
May 2004, Week 4
May 2004, Week 3
May 2004, Week 2
May 2004, Week 1
April 2004, Week 5
April 2004, Week 4
April 2004, Week 3
April 2004, Week 2
April 2004, Week 1
March 2004, Week 5
March 2004, Week 4
March 2004, Week 3
March 2004, Week 2
March 2004, Week 1
February 2004, Week 4
February 2004, Week 3
February 2004, Week 2
February 2004, Week 1
January 2004, Week 5
January 2004, Week 4
January 2004, Week 3
January 2004, Week 2
January 2004, Week 1
December 2003, Week 5
December 2003, Week 4
December 2003, Week 3
December 2003, Week 2
December 2003, Week 1
November 2003, Week 5
November 2003, Week 4
November 2003, Week 3
November 2003, Week 2
November 2003, Week 1
October 2003, Week 5
October 2003, Week 4
October 2003, Week 3
October 2003, Week 2
October 2003, Week 1
September 2003, Week 5
September 2003, Week 4
September 2003, Week 3
September 2003, Week 2
September 2003, Week 1
August 2003, Week 5
August 2003, Week 4
August 2003, Week 3
August 2003, Week 2
August 2003, Week 1
July 2003, Week 5
July 2003, Week 4
July 2003, Week 3
July 2003, Week 2
July 2003, Week 1
June 2003, Week 4
June 2003, Week 3
June 2003, Week 2
June 2003, Week 1
May 2003, Week 5
May 2003, Week 4
May 2003, Week 3
May 2003, Week 2
May 2003, Week 1
April 2003, Week 5
April 2003, Week 4
April 2003, Week 3
April 2003, Week 2
April 2003, Week 1
March 2003, Week 5
March 2003, Week 4
March 2003, Week 3
March 2003, Week 2
March 2003, Week 1
February 2003, Week 4
February 2003, Week 3
February 2003, Week 2
February 2003, Week 1
January 2003, Week 5
January 2003, Week 4
January 2003, Week 3
January 2003, Week 2
January 2003, Week 1
December 2002, Week 5
December 2002, Week 4
December 2002, Week 3
December 2002, Week 2
December 2002, Week 1
November 2002, Week 5
November 2002, Week 4
November 2002, Week 3
November 2002, Week 2
November 2002, Week 1
October 2002, Week 5
October 2002, Week 4
October 2002, Week 3
October 2002, Week 2
October 2002, Week 1
September 2002, Week 5
September 2002, Week 4
September 2002, Week 3
September 2002, Week 2
September 2002, Week 1
August 2002, Week 5
August 2002, Week 4
August 2002, Week 3
August 2002, Week 2
August 2002, Week 1
July 2002, Week 5
July 2002, Week 4
July 2002, Week 3
July 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 4
June 2002, Week 3
June 2002, Week 2
June 2002, Week 1
May 2002, Week 5
May 2002, Week 4
May 2002, Week 3
May 2002, Week 2
May 2002, Week 1
April 2002, Week 5
April 2002, Week 4
April 2002, Week 3
April 2002, Week 2
April 2002, Week 1
March 2002, Week 5
March 2002, Week 4
March 2002, Week 3
March 2002, Week 2
March 2002, Week 1
February 2002, Week 4
February 2002, Week 3
February 2002, Week 2
February 2002, Week 1
January 2002, Week 5
January 2002, Week 4
January 2002, Week 3
January 2002, Week 2
January 2002, Week 1
December 2001, Week 5
December 2001, Week 4
December 2001, Week 3
December 2001, Week 2
December 2001, Week 1
November 2001, Week 5
November 2001, Week 4
November 2001, Week 3
November 2001, Week 2
November 2001, Week 1
October 2001, Week 5
October 2001, Week 4
October 2001, Week 3
October 2001, Week 2
October 2001, Week 1
September 2001, Week 5
September 2001, Week 4
September 2001, Week 3
September 2001, Week 2
September 2001, Week 1
August 2001, Week 5
August 2001, Week 4
August 2001, Week 3
August 2001, Week 2
August 2001, Week 1
July 2001, Week 4
July 2001, Week 3
July 2001, Week 2
July 2001, Week 1
June 2001, Week 5
June 2001, Week 4
June 2001, Week 3
June 2001, Week 2
June 2001, Week 1
May 2001, Week 5
May 2001, Week 4
May 2001, Week 3
May 2001, Week 2
May 2001, Week 1
April 2001, Week 5
April 2001, Week 4
April 2001, Week 3
April 2001, Week 2
April 2001, Week 1
March 2001, Week 5
March 2001, Week 4
March 2001, Week 3
March 2001, Week 2
March 2001, Week 1
February 2001, Week 4
February 2001, Week 3
February 2001, Week 2
February 2001, Week 1
January 2001, Week 5
January 2001, Week 4
January 2001, Week 3
January 2001, Week 2
January 2001, Week 1
December 2000, Week 5
December 2000, Week 4
December 2000, Week 3
December 2000, Week 2
December 2000, Week 1
November 2000, Week 5
November 2000, Week 4
November 2000, Week 3
November 2000, Week 2
November 2000, Week 1
October 2000, Week 5
October 2000, Week 4
October 2000, Week 3
October 2000, Week 2
October 2000, Week 1
September 2000, Week 5
September 2000, Week 4
September 2000, Week 3
September 2000, Week 2
September 2000, Week 1
August 2000, Week 5
August 2000, Week 4
August 2000, Week 3
August 2000, Week 2
August 2000, Week 1
July 2000, Week 5
July 2000, Week 4
July 2000, Week 2
July 2000, Week 1
June 2000, Week 5
June 2000, Week 4
June 2000, Week 3
June 2000, Week 2
June 2000, Week 1
May 2000, Week 5
May 2000, Week 4
May 2000, Week 3
May 2000, Week 2
May 2000, Week 1
April 2000, Week 5
April 2000, Week 4
April 2000, Week 3
April 2000, Week 2
April 2000, Week 1
March 2000, Week 5
March 2000, Week 4
March 2000, Week 3
March 2000, Week 2
March 2000, Week 1
February 2000, Week 4
February 2000, Week 3
February 2000, Week 2
February 2000, Week 1
January 2000, Week 5
January 2000, Week 4
January 2000, Week 3
January 2000, Week 2
January 2000, Week 1
December 1999, Week 5
December 1999, Week 4
December 1999, Week 3
December 1999, Week 2
December 1999, Week 1
November 1999, Week 5
November 1999, Week 4
November 1999, Week 3
November 1999, Week 2
November 1999, Week 1
October 1999, Week 5
October 1999, Week 4
October 1999, Week 3
October 1999, Week 2
October 1999, Week 1
September 1999, Week 5
September 1999, Week 4
September 1999, Week 3
September 1999, Week 2
September 1999, Week 1
August 1999, Week 5
August 1999, Week 4
August 1999, Week 3
August 1999, Week 2
July 1999, Week 5
July 1999, Week 4
July 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 4
June 1999, Week 3
June 1999, Week 2
June 1999, Week 1
May 1999, Week 5
May 1999, Week 4
May 1999, Week 3
May 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 5
April 1999, Week 4
April 1999, Week 3
April 1999, Week 2
April 1999, Week 1
March 1999, Week 5
March 1999, Week 4
March 1999, Week 3
March 1999, Week 2
March 1999, Week 1
February 1999, Week 4
February 1999, Week 3
February 1999, Week 2
February 1999, Week 1
January 1999, Week 5
January 1999, Week 4
January 1999, Week 3
January 1999, Week 2
January 1999, Week 1
December 1998, Week 5
December 1998, Week 4
December 1998, Week 3
December 1998, Week 2
December 1998, Week 1
November 1998, Week 5
November 1998, Week 4
November 1998, Week 3
November 1998, Week 2
November 1998, Week 1
October 1998, Week 5
October 1998, Week 4
October 1998, Week 3
October 1998, Week 2
October 1998, Week 1
September 1998, Week 5
September 1998, Week 4
September 1998, Week 3
September 1998, Week 2
September 1998, Week 1
August 1998, Week 4
August 1998, Week 3
August 1998, Week 2
August 1998, Week 1
July 1998, Week 4
July 1998, Week 3
July 1998, Week 2
July 1998, Week 1
June 1998, Week 5
June 1998, Week 4
June 1998, Week 3
June 1998, Week 2
June 1998, Week 1
May 1998, Week 5
May 1998, Week 4
May 1998, Week 3
May 1998, Week 2
May 1998, Week 1
April 1998, Week 5
April 1998, Week 4
April 1998, Week 3
April 1998, Week 2
April 1998, Week 1
March 1998, Week 5
March 1998, Week 4
March 1998, Week 3
March 1998, Week 2
March 1998, Week 1
February 1998, Week 4
February 1998, Week 3
February 1998, Week 2
February 1998, Week 1
January 1998, Week 5
January 1998, Week 4
January 1998, Week 3
January 1998, Week 2
January 1998, Week 1
December 1997, Week 5
December 1997, Week 4
December 1997, Week 3
December 1997, Week 2
December 1997, Week 1
November 1997, Week 4
November 1997, Week 3
November 1997, Week 2
November 1997, Week 1
October 1997, Week 5
October 1997, Week 4
October 1997, Week 3
October 1997, Week 2
October 1997, Week 1
September 1997, Week 5
September 1997, Week 4
September 1997, Week 3
September 1997, Week 2
September 1997, Week 1
August 1997, Week 5
August 1997, Week 4
August 1997, Week 3
August 1997, Week 2
August 1997, Week 1
July 1997, Week 4
July 1997, Week 3
July 1997, Week 2
June 1997, Week 4

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