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Thank you June for this information.  As a member of the International Dyslexia Association, I am often asked about programs that make such promising claims.  The articles you have provided will be very
helpful to me.  Again, thanks for sharing this information.

June Crawford wrote:

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> Recently someone on this list asked about any information on reading research
> and brain processing.  I have lost the original request, but here is some
> information that may be helpful.
>
>     The enclosed material about Fast ForWard was gleaned from a report done
> for The Greenwood School and The Greenwood Institute by Susan Brady of the
> Psychology Department, University of Rhode Island and Haskins Laboratories.
>
> Fast ForWord
> Two products by Scientific Learning Corporation, Fast ForWord I and
> FastForWord II, are claimed to correct underlying auditory temporal
> processing" deficits and, thus, to eliminate the source of language or
> reading difficulties. With heavy media coverage and marketing, considerable
> interest has been generated in these programs. Yet, unpublished reports of
> the efficacy of the products have been criticized for not meeting standards
> for scientific research [e.g., failure to include the appropriate controls,
> widely varying participants (e.g., autistic children, dyslexic children)]. In
> addition, experiments by independent researchers fail to confirm that
> individuals with reading problems have "auditory temporal processing"
> deficits, and instead point to speech specific difficulties.
>
> The first two articles listed here, published in Science, were written by the
> founders of Scientific Learning:
> Merzenich, M., W. Jenkins, P. Johnston, C. Schreiner, S. Miller, and P.
> Tallal (1996). Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired
> children ameliorated by training. Science 271: 77-81.
>
> Tallal, P., S. Miller, G. Bedi, G. Byma, X. Wang, S. Nagarajan, C. Schreiner,
> W. Jenkins, and M. Merzenich (1996). Language comprehension in
> language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified
> speech. Science 271: 81-4.
> Brady, S., H. Scarborough, and D. Shankweiler (1997). A perspective on two
> recent research reports in science. Perspectives 22 (3): 5-8.
>
> A critique of the above articles. [Published by the International Dyslexia
> Association (410-296-0232)].
>
> Rice, M. (summer1997). Evaluating new training programs for language
> impairment. ASHA: 13.
>
> Concerns about Fast ForWord.
> Research and articles failing to support the theoretical foundation of Fast
> ForWord I:
> Bishop, D. V. M., R. P. Carlyon, J. M. Deeks, and S. J. Bishop (1999).
> Auditory temporal processing impairment: Neither necessary nor sufficient for
> causing language impairment in children. Journal of Speech, Language, and
> Hearing Research 42: 1295-1310.
>
> Bradlow, A. R., N. Kraus, T. G. Nicol, T. J. McGee, J. Cunningham, S. G.
> Zecker, and T. D. Carrell (1999). Effects of lengthened formant transition
> duration on discrimination and neural representation of synthetic CV
> syllables by normal and learning-disabled children. Journal of the Acoustical
> Society of America 106: 2086-96.
>
> McAnally, K., P. Hansen, P. Cornelissen, and J. Stein (1997). Effect of time
> and frequency manipulation on syllable perception in developmental dyslexics.
> Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 40: 912-24.
>
> Mody, M., M. Studdert-Kennedy, and S. Brady (1997). Speech perception
> deficits in poor readers: auditory processing or phonological coding? Journal
> of Experimental Child Psychology 64: 199-203.
>
> A critique of this article was written by Denenberg (1999), but has been
> countered by the authors:
> Denenberg, V. (1999). A critique of Mody, Studdert-Kennedy, and Brady's
> "Speech perception deficits in poor readers: Auditory processing or
> phonological coding?" Journal of Learning Disabilities 32: 379-83.
>
> Studdert-Kennedy, M., M. Mody, and S. Brady (in press). Speech perception
> deficits in poor readers: A reply to Denenberg's critique. Journal of
> Learning Disabilities 33(4).
> Nittrouer, S. (1999). Do temporal processing deficits cause phonological
> processing problems? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 42:
> 925-42.
>
> Studdert-Kennedy, M., A. M. Liberman, S. A. Brady, A. E. Fowler, M. Mody, and
> D. P. Shankweiler (1995). Lengthened formant transitions are irrelevant to
> the improvement of speech and language impairments. Haskins Laboratories
> Status Report on Speech Research, SR 119/120, 35-8. [Available from Haskins
> Laboratories (203-865-6163)]
>
> Studdert-Kennedy, M. and M. Mody (1995). Auditory temporal perception
> deficits in the reading-impaired: A critical review of the evidence.
> Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 2 (4): 508-14.
>
> Watson, B. U. and T. K. Miller (1993). Auditory perception, phonological
> processing and reading ability/disability. Journal of Speech and Hearing
> Research 36: 850-63.
>
> June Justice Crawford
> Learning Disabilities Program Director
> Program Officer for Bridges to Practice
> National Institute for Literacy
> 1775 I Street, NW   Suite 730
> Washington, DC 20006
> 202-233-2064  Phone
> 202-233-2050  Fax
>
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> Content-Type: text/html; charset="US-ASCII"
> Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
>
> <HTML><FONT FACE=arial,helvetica><FONT  SIZE=2><I>Recently someone on this list asked about any information on reading research
> <BR>and brain processing. &nbsp;I have lost the original request, but here is some
> <BR>information that may be helpful.
> <BR></I>
> <BR>    The enclosed material about Fast ForWard was gleaned from a report done
> <BR>for The Greenwood School and The Greenwood Institute by Susan Brady of the
> <BR>Psychology Department, University of Rhode Island and Haskins Laboratories.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0"><B>Fast ForWord </FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0"></B>
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Two products by Scientific Learning Corporation, Fast ForWord I and
> <BR>FastForWord II, are claimed to correct underlying auditory temporal
> <BR>processing" deficits and, thus, to eliminate the source of language or
> <BR>reading difficulties. With heavy media coverage and marketing, considerable
> <BR>interest has been generated in these programs. Yet, unpublished reports of
> <BR>the efficacy of the products have been criticized for not meeting standards
> <BR>for scientific research [e.g., failure to include the appropriate controls,
> <BR>widely varying participants (e.g., autistic children, dyslexic children)]. In
> <BR>addition, experiments by independent researchers fail to confirm that
> <BR>individuals with reading problems have "auditory temporal processing"
> <BR>deficits, and instead point to speech specific difficulties.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">The first two articles listed here, published in Science, were written by the
> <BR>founders of Scientific Learning: </FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Merzenich, M., W. Jenkins, P. Johnston, C. Schreiner, S. Miller, and P.
> <BR>Tallal (1996). Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired
> <BR>children ameliorated by training. Science 271: 77-81.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Tallal, P., S. Miller, G. Bedi, G. Byma, X. Wang, S. Nagarajan, C. Schreiner,
> <BR>W. Jenkins, and M. Merzenich (1996). Language comprehension in
> <BR>language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified
> <BR>speech. Science 271: 81-4. </FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Brady, S., H. Scarborough, and D. Shankweiler (1997). A perspective on two
> <BR>recent research reports in science. Perspectives 22 (3): 5-8.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">A critique of the above articles. [Published by the International Dyslexia
> <BR>Association (410-296-0232)].
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Rice, M. (summer1997). Evaluating new training programs for language
> <BR>impairment. ASHA: 13.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0"><B>Concerns about Fast ForWord. </FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0"></B>
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Research and articles failing to support the theoretical foundation of Fast
> <BR>ForWord I: </FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Bishop, D. V. M., R. P. Carlyon, J. M. Deeks, and S. J. Bishop (1999).
> <BR>Auditory temporal processing impairment: Neither necessary nor sufficient for
> <BR>causing language impairment in children. Journal of Speech, Language, and
> <BR>Hearing Research 42: 1295-1310.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Bradlow, A. R., N. Kraus, T. G. Nicol, T. J. McGee, J. Cunningham, S. G.
> <BR>Zecker, and T. D. Carrell (1999). Effects of lengthened formant transition
> <BR>duration on discrimination and neural representation of synthetic CV
> <BR>syllables by normal and learning-disabled children. Journal of the Acoustical
> <BR>Society of America 106: 2086-96.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">McAnally, K., P. Hansen, P. Cornelissen, and J. Stein (1997). Effect of time
> <BR>and frequency manipulation on syllable perception in developmental dyslexics.
> <BR>Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 40: 912-24.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Mody, M., M. Studdert-Kennedy, and S. Brady (1997). Speech perception
> <BR>deficits in poor readers: auditory processing or phonological coding? Journal
> <BR>of Experimental Child Psychology 64: 199-203.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">A critique of this article was written by Denenberg (1999), but has been
> <BR>countered by the authors: </FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Denenberg, V. (1999). A critique of Mody, Studdert-Kennedy, and Brady's
> <BR>"Speech perception deficits in poor readers: Auditory processing or
> <BR>phonological coding?" Journal of Learning Disabilities 32: 379-83.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Studdert-Kennedy, M., M. Mody, and S. Brady (in press). Speech perception
> <BR>deficits in poor readers: A reply to Denenberg's critique. Journal of
> <BR>Learning Disabilities 33(4). </FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Nittrouer, S. (1999). Do temporal processing deficits cause phonological
> <BR>processing problems? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 42:
> <BR>925-42.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Studdert-Kennedy, M., A. M. Liberman, S. A. Brady, A. E. Fowler, M. Mody, and
> <BR>D. P. Shankweiler (1995). Lengthened formant transitions are irrelevant to
> <BR>the improvement of speech and language impairments. Haskins Laboratories
> <BR>Status Report on Speech Research, SR 119/120, 35-8. [Available from Haskins
> <BR>Laboratories (203-865-6163)]
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Studdert-Kennedy, M. and M. Mody (1995). Auditory temporal perception
> <BR>deficits in the reading-impaired: A critical review of the evidence.
> <BR>Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 2 (4): 508-14.
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Watson, B. U. and T. K. Miller (1993). Auditory perception, phonological
> <BR>processing and reading ability/disability. Journal of Speech and Hearing
> <BR>Research 36: 850-63.
> <BR>
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">June Justice Crawford</FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Learning Disabilities Program Director</FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Program Officer for Bridges to Practice </FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">National Institute for Literacy</FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">1775 I Street, NW &nbsp;&nbsp;Suite 730</FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">Washington, DC 20006</FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">202-233-2064 &nbsp;Phone</FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR></FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=2 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">202-233-2050 &nbsp;Fax</FONT><FONT  COLOR="#000000" SIZE=3 FAMILY="SANSSERIF" FACE="Arial" LANG="0">
> <BR>
> <BR></FONT></HTML>
>
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