In this message Dennis includes the specific references that he sent me
several years ago. I wonder who the expert on anhingas is at present. I
still remember that Bud Owre told us so many years ago that the anhingas
DID have a network of veins on the wings so that the blood could absorb
heat. I am also sure that he said that the wing feathers on an anhnga have
a different structure that the body feathers so that they dry very quickly.
   Bob Kelley
   [log in to unmask]
   Coral Gables, FL

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Date: Wed, 16 Oct 2002 13:45:38 -0700
To: Robert Kelley <[log in to unmask]>
From: Dennis Paulson <[log in to unmask]>
Subject: Re: [FLBIRDS] cormorants/anhingas "drying their wings"
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Bob, here's a paragraph from a senior thesis done by a student of mine
who studied wing-spreading in local cormorants.

<fontfamily><param>Times_New_Roman</param><bigger>Hennemann (1984)
found evidence to support the wing-drying hypothesis (WDH) for both
Double-crested and Flightless (<italic>P. harrisi</italic>) cormorants.
 He attempted to determine if wing-spreading served a thermoregulatory
role for either of these birds, as it does for the Anhinga
(<italic>Anhinga anhinga</italic>).  Hennemann (1982) had found that
Anhingas use wing-spreading to increase their body temperature by
absorbing solar radiation.  He did not find a similar use of
wing-spreading in either Double-crested or Flightless cormorants, as
neither bird flattens out to the sun, as Anhingas do.  Additionally,
Flightless Cormorants experienced a slight (though not statistically
significant) decrease in body temperature while wing-spreading.
Because both species spread their wings almost exclusively when wet, he
concluded that the function was wing-drying, rather than

<fontfamily><param>Times_New_Roman</param><bigger>HENNEMANN, W. W.,
III.  1982.  Energetics and spread-winged behaviour of Anhingas in
Florida.  Condor  84:91-96.

HENNEMANN, W. W., III.  1984.  Spread-winged behaviour of
double-crested and flightless cormorants <italic>Phalacrocorax
auritus</italic> and <italic>P. harrisi</italic>:  Wing drying or
thermoregulation?  Ibis 126:230-239.

HENNEMANN, W. W., III.  1988.  Energetics and spread--winged behavior
in anhingas and double-crested cormorants:  The risks of
generalization.  Am. Zool. 8:845-851.


I hope this adds something to the story.


Dennis Paulson, Director                           phone 253-879-3798

Slater Museum of Natural History                 fax 253-879-3352

University of Puget Sound                       e-mail
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1500 N. Warner, #1088

Tacoma, WA 98416-1088

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