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Dear all,

Just to add a few references to those given by Carter. The following are
from the perspective of social movements & collective action combining
social networks considerations:

Kim, H., & Bearman, P.S. (1997). The structure and dynamics of movement
participation. American Sociological Review, vol. 62, pp. 70-93.

Ohlemacher, T. (1996). Bridging people and protest: Social relays of
protest groups against low-flying military jets in West Germany. Social
Problems, vol. 43, pp. 197-218.

Lohmann, S. (1994). The dynamics of informational cascades: The Monday
demonstrations in Leipzig, East Germany, 1989-91. World Politics, vol. 47,
pp. 42-101.

Oliver, P., Marwell, G. (2001). Whatever happened to critical mass theory?
A retrospective and assessment. Sociological Theory, vol. 19, no. 3, pp.

Diani, M., & McAdam, D. (eds.) (2003). Social Movements and Networks:
Relational Approaches to Collective Action. Oxford: Oxford University

The last references is a very important work where you could find more
references to the diffusion approach in social movements (e.g., the work
of Pamela Oliver, Daniel Myers, Susan Olzak, Peter Hedstrom, David Strang,
Nancy Tuma and many others). Please, let me know if you need the latter
references on SM-diffusion so that I might post them into the list.

Cheers & Peace,


  M.A. Boudourides
  Associate Professor

  Department of Mathematics
  University of Patras
  265 00 Rio-Patras

  Tel.: +30-2610-996318
  Fax:  +30-2610-996318, +30-2610-992965

Jackie Cook said:
> *****  To join INSNA, visit  *****
> Carter, thank you for these references and thanks also to Ainhoa and
> Ferry for raising this topic for discussion.
> The worldwide protest movement definitely gained a lot of momentum in
> the months leading up to the war and it would be a huge loss of social
> capital if the network infrastructure that has been built up was to
> unravel now that the war has started, perhaps due to feelings of
> disempowerment (which is a severe risk here in the USA, given the biased
> media coverage of the international protests).  Certainly, this movement
> has benefitted to some extent from the remnants of the network
> infrastructure that supported the Vietnam War protest movement - some of
> the original Vietnam organizers were central to organizing recent
> protest events in Seattle.  Digital
> communications (from email alerts and friends' mailing lists to
> international news sites) were a key medium through which the messages
> about various protest actions were communicated and through which
> critical information, that wasn't getting mainstream media coverage, in
> the US at least, was being disseminated (such as the questions
> surrounding the health impacts of Depleted Uranium, the considered
> reservations expressed by various politicians and high ranking military
> officers, the 'bribes' made to various countries to gain their support
> for the war and, probably most powerful, accurate reporting on the
> extent of opposition to war).  Besides being tool for grassroots
> democratic action, the movement has had numerous other positive social
> externalities so a social network analysis of the movement definitely
> has much to contribute.
> Jackie Cook.
> -----Original Message-----
> From: Social Networks Discussion Forum [mailto:[log in to unmask]]On
> Behalf Of Carter T. Butts
> Sent: Monday, March 24, 2003 1:00 PM
> To: [log in to unmask]
> Subject: Re: Networks in the current global situation
> *****  To join INSNA, visit  *****
> Ferry Koster wrote:
>> As far as I have seen, the people that
>> demonstrated wanted to express their feelings about this war. For a
>> large part, the only thing organized where the time, the place and
>> some of the speakers. My point is that it is possible that network
>> theory does not
> have
>> a lot to say about this.
> Even if the protest events are not formally organized, it does not
> follow that network theory has nothing to say.  (Quite the opposite, in
> fact -- these are the more interesting cases, at least to a
> sociologist.)  For a little of the past (formal) work in this area, you
> might want to see:
> Granovetter, Mark.  (1978).  “Threshold Models of Collective Behavior.”
>   American Journal of Sociology, 83, 1420-1443.
> Macy, Michael W.  (1991).  “Chains of Cooperation: Threshold Effects in
> Collective Action.”  American Sociological Review, 56.
> Macy, Michael W.  (1993).  "Social Learning and the Structure of
> Collective Action."  Advances in Group Processes, 10, 1-35.
> Glance, Natalie S. and Huberman, Bernardo A.  (1994).  "Social Dilemmas
> and Fluid Organizations."  In K.M. Carley and M.J. Prietula (Eds),
> Computational Organization Theory.  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and
> Associates
> You might also ask how those who elect to protest have come by their
> opinions, particularly given the primarly pro-war media barrage.  This,
> too, is a matter on which network theory has much to say.  At risk of
> dumping a long list on you (but it's such an _exciting_ list!), here's a
> (small) sampling of what's available:
> Burt, Ronald S.  (1987).  “Social Contagion and Innovaation: Cohesion
> Versus Structural Equivalence.”  American Journal of Sociology, 92,
> 1287-1335.
> Butts, Carter.  (1998).  “A Bayesian Model of Panic in Belief.”
> Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory, 4(4).
> Carley, Kathleen M.  (1990).  "Group Stability: A Socio-Cognitive
> Approach."  Advances in Group Processes, 7, 1-44.
> Carley, Kathleen M.  (1991).  "A Theory of Group Stability."  American
> Sociological Review, 56(3), 331-354.
> Coleman, James, Katz, Elihu, and Menzel, Herbert.  (1957).  "The
> Diffusion of an Innovation Among Physicians."  Sociometry, 20, 253-270.
> Coleman, James, Katz, Elihu, and Menzel, Herbert.  (1966).  "The
> Diffusion of an Innovation Among Physicians."  In Leinhardt (Ed.),
> Social Networks: A Developing Paradigm.
> Friedkin, Noah, and Cook, Karen.  (1990).  "Peer Group Influence."
> Sociological Methods and Research, 19(1), 122-143.
> Friedkin, Noah and Johnsen, Eugene C.  (1990).  "Social Influence and
> Opinions."  Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 15, 193-206.
> Krackhardt, David.  (1994).  "Endogenous Preferences: A Structural
> Approach."  Working paper, H.J. Heinz III School of Public Policy and
> Management, Carnegie Mellon University.
> Krackhardt, David.  (1997).  "Organizational Viscosity and the Diffusion
> of Controversial Innovations."  Journal of Mathematical Sociology,
> 22(2), 177-199.
> Latane, Bibb.  (1996).  "Dynamic Social Impact: The Creation of Culture
> by Communication."  Journal of Communication, 46(4), 13-25.
> Latane, Bibb, and L'Herrou, Todd.  (1996).  "Spatial Clustering in the
> Conformity Game: Dynamic Social Impact in Electronic Groups."  Journal
> of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(6), 1218-1230.
> Markovsky, Barry, and Thye, Shane.  (2001).  "Social Influences on
> Paranormal Beliefs."  Sociological Perspectives, 44(1), 21-44.
> Valente, Thomas W.  (1993).  “Diffusion of Innovations and Policy
> Decision-Making.”  Journal of Communication, 43(1), 30-41.
> Valente, Thomas W.  (1995).  Network Models of the Diffusion of
> Innovations.  Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
> Valente, T.W., Kim, Y.M., Lettenmaier, C., Glass, W., and Dibba, Y.
> (1994).  “Radio and the Promotion of Family Planning in the Gambia.”
> International Perspectives on Family Planning, 20(3), 96-100.
>         I've left out quite a few folx, but this should convey something
> of
> the
> breadth of the kinds of models which are out there.  This is a domain
> which has been rather extensively theorized by social networkers,
> perhaps in excess of the available data.  (Most of these models have at
> least some data backing them up, but to my knowledge there have been
> relatively few head-to-head comparisons (partially, I think, due to a
> divergence in the low-level assumptions about what is being modeled). If
> someone's looking for a good project, this is a challenging
> candidate!)  I'm sure that others here will have their own favorites, as
> well...but, in any event, I think this is sufficient to speak to the
> conjecture that network theory has little to say either about collective
> behavior or about public opinion.  Hopefully, someone is gathering data
> regarding the present conflict; it will be interesting to see how these
> various models play out against reality.*
>         -Carter
> * Again, this is not to belittle the important empirical work which has
> been (and is being) done.  It is merely the case that there is still
> much to do.
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