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There is a detailed treatment of the amount and kind of distortion
introduced by a single human being in recalling an episode.  It could be
concatenated into a network model of sequential communication.  It was
developed by the husband/wife team of psychologists, the Mandlers, at
UCSD.  A couple of sources are:

Mandler, G. Organization and memory.  P. 328-371 in K.W.Spence and
J.T.Spence, eds., The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Vol. 1. New
York: Academic, 1967.

Mandler J.M. Categorical and schematic organization in memory.  Pp.
259-299 in C. R. Puff, ed., Memory Organization and Structure.  New York:
Academic, 1979.


On Wed, 25 Aug 2004, patrick doreian wrote:

> *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.sfu.ca/~insna/  *****
>
> hi everyone,
>                        i am not sure that the parallel between the telephone
> game and the data stream of bush/cheney responses to kerry
> statements holds. in the game there seems to be some attempt
> on the part of the participants to transmit in a reasonably
> accurate manner. distortion enters into the process in the forms
> of mistakes of various sorts. in the political data stream the intent
> seems to be one of  parsing the statements of an opponent with
> the intent of extracting material for political advantage. by making
> claims about what someone else "said" with this intent, the
> distortion is deliberate.  now, that could parallel the legal arena
> and the use of evidence
> with best wishes
> pat
>
>
> --On Tuesday, August 24, 2004 5:21 PM -0400 David Carpe
> <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>
> > *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.sfu.ca/~insna/  *****
> >
> > something that jumped to mind when reading this again is the inference
> > based logic approach used by lawyers to "model clues and evidence" for
> > purposes of corroborating stories from multiple parties....in fact, the
> > nsa (natl security agency) presented at a conference i was at earlier
> > this year discussing the use of this approach to model information for
> > open source intelligence gathering, though the logic is similar.
> >
> > for example (pardon the example, trying to make it marginally relevant) -
> > multiple parties witness and/or hear about a crime through direct and
> > indirect sources - like one person saw 'the back of the head' (hairstyle,
> > length, color, body type)...another saw other parts, another heard about
> > what the person looked like or sounded like and so on...and as the stories
> > spread to other parties, the facts change (now 4 hair color variations, 2
> > hair styles etc as the police and investigators are questioning
> > sources)...using a flow chart of sorts (per the nsa example),  individuals
> > sources will be rated according to various criteria (namely the areas of
> > credibility, reliability, first/second hand knowledge etc) and then facts
> > mapped to one another alongside the dialogue and notes (the cited hair
> > colors for example)..
> >
> > at any rate, my point: one place to look for substantial research could be
> > the world of criminal law, evidence and associated support for legitimacy
> > of evidence...information flow is critical, as some case foundations are
> > built on hearsay prior to collection of facts and evidence...and in some
> > cases, the testimony itself could be taken as telephone endgame...just my
> > opinion...law enforcement must study this quite seriously (e.g. those
> > training guys who preach NLP to elicit information and determine
> > reliability through personality profiling...)
> > -dave
> >
> >
> > At 05:12 PM 8/24/2004, Carter T. Butts wrote:
> >> *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.sfu.ca/~insna/  *****
> >>
> >> Valdis wrote:
> >>> *****  To join INSNA, visit http://www.sfu.ca/~insna/  *****
> >>>
> >>> Is there any serious research on the distortion of information as it
> >>> travels along a network path -- similar to the popular children's game
> >>> of "Telephone"?  A Google search brings up nothing.
> >>
> >> The canonical cite for this work is Allport and Postman's old
> >> stuff...there has been relatively little systematic empirical work since
> >> on that particular problem, although there is a great deal of work on
> >> related issues in network diffusion (both empirical and theoretical).
> >> Gabriel Lawson and I have recently revisited the original A&P data, and
> >> are working on this problem vis a vis the flow of crisis information
> >> through interpersonal networks.  We presented some of this at the recent
> >> NAACSOS conference in Pittsburgh; a very brief summary is available in
> >> the online proceedings (search for NAACSOS).
> >>
> >> -Carter
> >>
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> > David Carpe, Principal & Founder
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>
> patrick doreian
> professor and chair
> department of sociology
> 2406 WWPH
> university of pittsburgh
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