***** To join INSNA, visit http://www.insna.org ***** A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away (the U.S. from the late sixties through early eighties), a number of mental health professionals including Speck, Attneave, Pattison, Curtis, and Garrison extended the boundaries of family therapy to work with personal networks - a practice that came to be known as "network therapy." In 1980, I reviewed the emerging field in Connections. When Ross Speck described his pioneering practice to Erving Goffman, Goffman directed him to Elizabeth Botts' book, which led Speck to adopt the term and concept of network. The first network therapists used network ideas from anthropology, particularly the works of Barnes, Mitchell, and Boissevain. Jodie Kliman and I, building on emerging structural theory in network analysis, and particularly the research of Hammer, Cohen, and Sokolofsky on the networks of chronic psychiatric patients, worked on a systematic integration of clinical strategies and social network analysis. In the U.S., the industrialization of mental health practice by the insurance industry mopped up whatever remnants of network therapy remained after the Reagan administration murdered community mental health. Network intervention survived in countries with remnants of the social welfare state, e.g. Canada (e.g., Lugtig), Holland (e.g., Baars), and Sweden (e.g., Forsberg, Klefbeck, Svedhem). Seikkula, a Finn, is generally acknowledged to be the current leading innovator in network therapy. Over time, unfortunately, network therapy has lost its emphasis on analysis of network structure. Postmodern ideas of social constructionism are the trend in family therapy, and Seikkula's (and my) work focuses on the distinction between monologic and dialogic discourse in therapeutic process. The website www.netletter.org has current ideas and an archive of a newsletter that I used to edit through the 1980s and 90s, offering a historical perspective on the field. In social work, Collins developed the idea of alliance with natural helpers in personal networks, and Lugtig led an ambitious project to build and strengthen network supports in inner-city neighborhoods to prevent child maltreatment. The references below are extracted from a longer list that I can provide in response to requests. David Trimble Attneave, C. (1969). Therapy in tribal settings and urban network intervention. Family Process, 8, 192-210. Baars, H. Uffing, J., & Dekkers, G. (1990). Sociale netwerk-stratagieen in de sociale psychiatrie. Antwerp: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum Beels, C. (1981). Social networks and the treatment of schizophrenics. International Journal of Family Therapy, 3, 310-316. Cohen, C., & Sokolovsky, J. (1978). Schizophrenia and social networks:Ex-patients in the inner city. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4, 546-560. Collins, A. & Pancoast, D. (1976). Natural helping networks. Washington: NASW Publications. Curtis, W. (1974). Team problem-solving in a social network. Psychiatric Annals, 4, 11-27. Erickson, G. (1975). The concept of personal network in clinical practice. Family Process, 14, 487-498. Erickson, G. (1984). A framework and themes for social network intervention. Family Process, 23, 187-204. Forsberg, G., & Wallmark, J. (1998). Nätverksboken - om mötets möjligheter. Stockholm: Liber Forsberg, G., & Wallmark, J. (1994). Focusing the network: Multicultural experiences from the Crisis Unit in Botkyrka, Sweden. Human Systems, 5, 267-282. Garrison, J. (1974). Network techniques: Case studies in the screening-linking-planning conference method. Family Process, 13, 337-353. Garrison, J. (1981) Clinical construction of action social networks. International Journal of Family Therapy, 3, 258-267. Gatti, F., & Colman, C. (1976). Community network therapy: An approach to aiding families with troubled children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 40, 608-617. Halevy-Martini, J., Hemley-van der Velden, E., Ruhf, L., & Schoenfeld, P. (1984). Process and strategy in network therapy. Family Process, 23, 521-523. Hammer, M. (1963). Influence of small social networks as factors in mental hospital admission. Human Organization, 22,243-251. Hammer, M., Makiesky-Barrow, S., & Gutwirth, L. (1978). Social networks and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 4, 522-545. Hemley-van der Velden, E., Halevy-Martini, J, Ruhf, L., & Schoenfeld, P. (1984). Conceptual issues in network therapy. International Journal of Family Therapy, 6, 68-81. Hurd, G., Pattison, E., & Llamas, R. (1981). Models of social network intervention. International Journal of Family Therapy, 3, 246-257. Klefbeck, J., Bergerhed, E., Forsberg, G., Hultkrantz-Jeppson, A., & Marklund, K. (1987). Nätverksarbete i multiproblemfamiljer. Tumba: Botkyrda Kommun. Kliman, J., & Trimble, D. (1983). Network therapy. In B. Wolman & G. Stricker (Eds.), Handbook of family and marital therapy. New York: Plenum. 277-314. Lugtig, G. & Fuchs, D. (1992). Building on the strengths of local neighborhood social network ties for the prevention of child maltreatment: The final report of the neighborhood parent support project. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Child and Family Services Research Group, Faculty of Social Work, University of Manitoba. Pattison, E., DeFrancisco, D., Wood, P., Frazier, H., & Crowder, J. (1975). A psychosocial kinship model for family therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 132, 1246-1251. Rueveni, U. (1975). Network intervention with a family in crisis. Family Process, 14, 193-204. Sarason, S. (1976). Community psychology, networks, and Mr. Everyman. American Psychologist, 31, 317-328. Schoenfeld, P., Halevy, J., Hemley van der Velden, E., & Ruhf, L. (1985). Network therapy: An outcome study of twelve social networks. Journal of Community Psychology, 13, 281-287. Seidman, L., Sokolove, R., McElroy, C., Knapp, P., & Sabin, T. (1987). Lateral ventricular size and social network differentiation in young, nonchronic schizophrenic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 512-514. Seikkula, J., & Olson, M. E.(2003). The Open Dialogue approach to psychosis: Its poetics and micropolitics. Family Process, 42, 403-418. Seikkula, J., & Trimble, D. (2005) Healing elements of dialogue: Therapeutic conversation as an act of love. Family Process, 44(4), 463-477. Sokolove, R., & Trimble, D. (1986). Assessing support and stress in the social networks of chronic patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 37, 370-372. Speck, R. (1967). Psychotherapy of the social network of a schizophrenic patient. Family Process, 6, 208-214. Speck, R., & Attneave, C. (1973). Family networks. New York: Pantheon. Svedhem,L.,Bergerhed,E.,Brendler,M.,Forsberg,G.,Hultkrantz-Jeppson, A.,Marklund, K., & MDrtensson, L., & Swaling, J. (1985). Nätversksterapi: Teori och praktik. Stockholm: Carlssons. Todd, D. (1979b). Social networks and psychology. Connections, 2(Spring), 87-88. Todd, D., & Armstrong, D. (1984). Support systems of elders in rural communities. International Journal of Family Therapy, 6, 82-92. Trimble, D. (1980). A guide to the network therapies. Connections, 3(2), 9-22. Trimble, D. (1981). Social network intervention with antisocial adolescents. International journal of family therapy, 3, 268-274. Trimble, D. (1993). Community network therapy: The neighborhood parent support project. Netletter, 7(2), 2, 7-10. Trimble, D. (2000). Emotion and voice in network therapy. Netletter, 7(1), 10-15. (www.netletter.org). Trimble, D. (2001). Making sense in conversations about learning disabilities. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 27, 473-486. Trimble, D., & Kliman, J. (1981). Community network therapy: Strengthening the networks of chronic patients. International Journal of Family Psychiatry, 2, 269-289. Trimble, D., & Kliman, J. (1995). Network intervention. In M. ElkaVm (Ed.), Panorama des thérapies familiales. Paris: Éditions du Seuil. Trimble, D., Kliman, J., Villapiano, A., & Beckett, W. (1984). Follow up of a full-scale network assembly. International Journal of Family Therapy, 6,102-113. van der Velden, E., Halevy-Martini, J., Ruhf, L., & Schoenfeld, P. (1984). Conceptual issues in network therapy. International Journal of Family Therapy, 6, 68-81. Wenger, G. (1991). A network typology: From theory to practice. Journal of Aging Studies, 5, 147-162. Wenger, G. & St. Leger, F. (1992). Community structure and support network variation. Aging and Society, 12, 213-236. _____________________________________________________________________ SOCNET is a service of INSNA, the professional association for social network researchers (http://www.insna.org). To unsubscribe, send an email message to [log in to unmask] containing the line UNSUBSCRIBE SOCNET in the body of the message.