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National and International Dimensions of the Triple Helix in Japan: 
University-Industry-Government versus International Co-Authorship Relations 


Abstract
International co-authorship relations and university-industry-government
("Triple Helix") relations have hitherto been studied separately. Using
Japanese (ISI) publication data for the period 1981-2004, we were able to
study both kinds of relations in a single design. In the Japanese file,
1,277,823 articles with at least one Japanese address were attributed to the
three sectors, and we know additionally whether these papers were
co-authored internationally. Using the mutual information in three and four
dimensions, respectively, we show that the Japanese Triple-Helix system has
continuously been eroded at the national level. However, since the middle of
the 1990s, international co-authorship relations have contributed to a
reduction of the uncertainty. In other words, the national publication
system of Japan has developed a capacity to retain surplus value generated
internationally. In a final section, we compare these results with an
analysis based on similar data for Canada. A relative uncoupling of local
university-industry relations because of international collaborations is
indicated in both national systems. 


<http://www.leydesdorff.net/TripleHelixJapan/index.htm> 
<pdf: http://www.leydesdorff.net/TripleHelixJapan/TripleHelixJapan.pdf> 


Loet Leydesdorff* and Yuan Sun**

*Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR), 
University of Amsterdam, Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam, The
Netherlands; [log in to unmask]; http://www.leydesdorff.net 

**National Institute of Informatics (NII), 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, 
Tokyo 101-8430, Japan; [log in to unmask] <mailto:[log in to unmask]>  

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