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Measuring the knowledge base in Hungary: Triple Helix dynamics in a
transition economy <> 

Balázs Lengyel * and Loet Leydesdorff **

How can the knowledge base of a transition economy be measured? Building on
previous studies in the Netherlands and Germany, we combine the perspective
of regional economics on the interrelationships among geography, technology,
and organization with the triple-helix model of
university-industry-government relations, and use the mutual information in
three dimensions as an indicator of the configurations. Our data consists of
firms categorized in terms of sub-regions (proxy for geography), industrial
sector (proxy for technology), and firm size (proxy for organization). The
results indicate that the knowledge base of Hungary is strongly
differentiated in terms of regions. Budapest and its agglomeration are
central to the country on every indicator. In the north-western part of the
country, foreign-owned companies and FDI disturb an etastistic triple helix
dynamics which is still dominant in the eastern part of the country.
However, the national level seems no longer to add to the synergy among the
regional innovation systems. Further analysis of the knowledge-intensive
services and its high-tech components reveals that the transition from the
planned economy to integration in the European common market is not yet

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*     Centre for Regional Studies Budapest Department, Hungarian Academy of
Sciences, Teréz krt. 13, H- 1067 Budapest, Hungary; e-mail:
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** 	Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam.
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