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a loooong one


 Barry Wellman
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  S.D. Clark Professor of Sociology, FRSC               NetLab Director
  Department of Sociology                  725 Spadina Avenue, Room 388
  University of Toronto   Toronto Canada M5S 2J4   twitter:barrywellman
  http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman             fax:+1-416-978-3963
  Updating history:      http://chass.utoronto.ca/oldnew/cybertimes.php
 _______________________________________________________________________

 Economic Networks: What Do We Know And What Do We Need To Know? , Adv.
Complex Sys.

Excerpts: We examine the emergent field of economic networks and explore
its ability to shed light on the global and volatile economy where credit,
ownership, innovation, investment, and virtually every other economic
activity is carried at a scale and scope that respects no geographical,
organizational, or political boundaries. In this context, the study of
economic networks and their dynamics must reflect the vast complexity of
the interaction patterns (�). (�) Meeting this exciting scientific
challenge requires a combination of time-series analysis, complexity
theory, and simulation with the analytical tools that have been developed
by game theory, as well as graph and matrix theories. (�)

* [2] Economic Networks: What Do We Know And What Do We Need To Know?, [3]
F. Schweitzer, D. Sornette , F. V.-Redondo , D. R. White, Aug. & Oct.
2009, DOI: 10.1142/S0219525909002337, Advances in Complex Systems *
Contributed by [4] Pritha Das
http://ejournals.worldscientific.com.sg/acs/12/1204n05/S0219525909002337.html

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02.01. The Evolutionary And Ecological Roots Of Human Social
Organization ,
Phil. Trans. B

Excerpts: Social organization among human foragers is characterized by a
three-generational system of resource provisioning within families,
long-term pair-bonding between men and women, high levels of cooperation
between kin and non-kin, and relatively egalitarian social relationships.
In this paper, we suggest that these core features of human sociality
result from the learning- and skill-intensive human foraging niche, (�).
We present an explanatory framework for understanding variation in social
organization across human societies, highlighting the interactive effects
of four key ecological and economic variables: (i) the role of skill in
resource production; (ii)  the degree of complementarity in male and
female inputs into production;  (iii) economies of scale (�).

* [8] The Evolutionary And Ecological Roots Of Human Social Organization,
[9] H. S. Kaplan, P. L. Hooper , M. Gurven, 2009/11/12, DOI:
10.1098/rstb.2009.0115, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B * Contributed by [10] Atin
Das

[8] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1533/3289.abstract

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11. Massively collaborative mathematics , Nature

Excerpt: The Polymath Project had a conventional scientific goal: to
attack an unsolved problem in mathematics. But it also had the more
ambitious goal of doing mathematical research in a new way. Inspired by
open-source enterprises such as Linux and Wikipedia, it used blogs and a
wiki to mediate a fully open collaboration. Anyone in the world could
follow along and, if they wished, make a contribution. The blogs and wiki
functioned as a collective short- term working memory, a conversational
commons for the rapid-fire exchange and improvement of ideas.

* [33] Massively collaborative mathematics, Timothy Gowers, Michael
Nielsen, 2009/10/15, DOI: 10.1038/461879a, Nature 461, 879-881

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14. Resolving social dilemmas on evolving random networks , arXiv

Abstract: We show that strategy independent adaptations of random
interaction networks can induce powerful mechanisms, ranging from the Red
Queen to group selection, that promote cooperation in evolutionary social
dilemmas.  These two mechanisms emerge spontaneously as dynamical
processes due to deletions and additions of links, which are performed
whenever players adopt new strategies and after a certain number of game
iterations, respectively. The potency of cooperation promotion, as well as
the mechanism responsible for it, can thereby be tuned via a single
parameter determining the frequency of link additions. We thus demonstrate
that coevolving random networks may evoke an appropriate mechanism for
each social dilemma, such that cooperation prevails even by highly
unfavorable conditions.
 Resolving social dilemmas on evolving random networks, Attila Szolnoki,
Matjaz Perc, 2009/10/10, arXiv:0910.1905 [EPL 86 (2009) 30007]

[38] http://arXiv.org/abs/0910.1905

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Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request , PLoS ONE

Excerpt: These results provide further evidence for altruistic helping in
chimpanzees in the absence of direct personal gain or even immediate
reciprocation. Our findings additionally highlight the importance of
request as a proximate mechanism motivating prosocial behavior in
chimpanzees...

* [41] Chimpanzees Help Each Other upon Request, Yamamoto S , Humle T ,
Tanaka M, October 14, 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007416, PLoS ONE
4(10): e7416 * Contributed by [42] Segismundo [41]
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0007416


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17.01. Social Stability And Helping In Small Animal Societies , Phil.
Trans. B

Excerpt: In primitively eusocial societies, all individuals can
potentially reproduce independently. The key fact that we focus on in this
paper is that individuals in such societies instead often queue to inherit
breeding positions. Queuing leads to systematic differences in expected
future fitness. We first discuss the implications this has for variation
in behaviour. For example, because helpers nearer to the front of the
queue have more to lose, they should work less hard to rear the dominant's
offspring. However, higher rankers may be more aggressive than low
rankers, even if they risk injury in the process, if aggression functions
to maintain or enhance queue position. (�)

* [43] Social Stability And Helping In Small Animal Societies, [44] J.
Field, M. A. Cant, 2009/11/12, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2009.0110, Phil. Trans.
R.  Soc. B * Contributed by [45] Atin Das

[43] http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/364/1533/3181.abstract

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 Emergence, Analysis and Evolution of Structures: Concepts and Strategies
Across Disciplines , Springer

Summary:  The study of structures and structure generating processes is a
common concern of all scientific and technical disciplines. The present
volume presents an interdisciplinary investigation of the different
methods of analysis and modelling which, while differing considerably in
detail, usually have evolutionary adaption or development schemes at their
core. The book naturally falls into three parts - a first part summarizing
the transdisciplinary fundamentals, a second part discussing in detail
case studies from various fields (production engineering, medicine,
management, molecular biology, energy engineering, civil engineering,
logistics, sociology, physics) and a shorter outlook on the
transdisciplinary perspective.

* [54] Emergence, Analysis and Evolution of Structures: Concepts and
Strategies Across Disciplines, Klaus Lucas, Peter Roosen, 2009/12/01,
Springer

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