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Normalization, CWTS indicators, and the Leiden Rankings: 
Differences in citation behavior at the level of fields

	Abstract: Van Raan et al. (2010; <> )
have proposed a new indicator (MNCS) for field normalization. Since field
normalization is also used in the Leiden Rankings of universities, we
elaborate our critique of journal normalization in Opthof & Leydesdorff
(2010; <> ) in this rejoinder concerning field
normalization. Fractional citation counting thoroughly solves the issue of
normalization for differences in citation behavior among fields. This
indicator can also be used to obtain a normalized impact factor. 

Authors: Loet Leydesdorff, Tobias Opthof 
(Submitted on 21 Mar 2010)

Subjects: 	Physics and Society (physics.soc-ph)	
Cite as: 	arXiv:1003.3977v1 <>

Loet Leydesdorff 
Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR)
Kloveniersburgwal 48, 1012 CX Amsterdam 

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