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  Complex networks: The fragility of interdependency , Nature

Summary: A study of failures in interconnected networks highlights the 
vulnerability of tightly coupled infrastructures and shows the need to 
consider mutually dependent network properties in designing resilient 
systems.

* [1] Complex networks: The fragility of interdependency, Alessandro
Vespignani, 2010/04/15, DOI: 10.1038/464984a, Nature 464, 984-985

[1] http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/464984a

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  Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks , Nature

Excerpt: Complex networks have been studied intensively for a decade, but 
research still focuses on the limited case of a single, non-interacting 
network. Modern systems are coupled together and therefore should be 
modelled as interdependent networks. A fundamental property of 
interdependent networks is that failure of nodes in one network may lead 
to failure of dependent nodes in other networks. This may happen 
recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures.

* [2] Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks, Sergey 
V. Buldyrev, Roni Parshani, Gerald Paul, H. Eugene Stanley, Shlomo Havlin, 
2010/04/15, DOI: 10.1038/nature08932, Nature 64, 1025-1028

[2] http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08932

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BuRSTS

Excerpt:  [3] BuRSTS is a performance in human dynamics, a game of 
cooperation and prediction, that will gradually unveil the full text of 
Bursts. In a nutshell, if you register at [4] http://brsts.com, you will 
be able to adopt one of the 84,245 words of the book. Once you adopt, the 
words adopted by others will become visible to you -- thus as each words 
finds a parent, the whole book will become visible to the adopters. But if 
you invite your friends (and please do!) and you are good at predicting 
hidden content, the book will unveil itself to you well before all words 
are adopted. We will even send each day free signed copied of Bursts to 
those with the best scores. See Also: [5] http://brsts.com

* [6] BuRSTS, Albert-Laszlo Barabasi

[3]
http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/0525951601?ie=UTF8&tag=complexes-20&linkCode=as2&c
amp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=0525951601
http://brsts.com


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Competition encourages cooperation: client fish receive higher-quality
service when cleaner fish compete , Animal Behaviour

Excerpt: Partner choice is likely to be an important mechanism for the 
maintenance of cooperation in many mutualisms, and cleaner mutualisms 
among fish have been a model system for testing predictions of partner 
choice theories. [...]The results indicate that cleaners give ornate 
butterflyfish, Chaetodon ornatissimus, priority of access to their 
services when these clients can switch partners; however, ornate 
butterflyfish are not cheated less often when they have access to multiple 
cleaner stations, and they frequently respond to cheating by aggressively 
chasing cleaners. In combination with previous work, these results 
indicate that partner choice influences cooperative interactions between 
bluestreak cleaner wrasse and their clients, but that some clients with 
the ability to switch partners may use other strategies (i.e. punishment) 
to limit cheating by cleaners.

* [22] Competition encourages cooperation: client fish receive 
higher-quality service when cleaner fish compete, Adam TC, April 2010, 
DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.02.023, Animal Behaviour, in Press

[22] http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2010.02.023

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  BioTorrents: A File Sharing Service for Scientific Data , PLoS ONE

Excerpt: In this study we present BioTorrents, a website that allows open 
access sharing of scientific data and uses the popular BitTorrent 
peer-to-peer file sharing technology.

* [26] BioTorrents: A File Sharing Service for Scientific Data, Langille 
MGI , Eisen JA, April 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010071, PLoS ONE 
5(4): e10071.

[26] http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010071
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Efficient and Exact Sampling of Simple Graphs with Given Arbitrary Degree
Sequence , PLoS ONE

Excerpt: Uniform sampling from graphical realizations of a given degree 
sequence is a fundamental component in simulation-based measurements of 
network observables, with applications ranging from epidemics, through 
social networks to Internet modeling. Here we propose an efficient, 
polynomial time algorithm that generates statistically independent graph 
samples with a given, arbitrary, degree sequence.

* [28] Efficient and Exact Sampling of Simple Graphs with Given Arbitrary 
Degree Sequence, Del Genio CI , Kim H , Toroczkai Z , Bassler KE, April 
2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010012, PLoS ONE 5(4): e10012. [28] 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010012

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The Cooperative Game Theory of Networks and Hierarchies , Springer

Summary:  The book brings together an overview of standard concepts in 
cooperative game theory with applications to the analysis of social 
networks and hierarchical authority organizations. The standard concepts 
covered include the multi-linear extension, the Core, the Shapley value, 
and the cooperative potential. Also discussed are the Core for a 
restricted collection of formable coalitions, various Core covers, the 
Myerson value, value-based potentials, and share potentials. Within the 
context of social networks this book discusses the measurement of 
centrality and power as well as allocation rules such as the Myerson value 
and hierarchical allocation rules. (...)

* [38] The Cooperative Game Theory of Networks and Hierarchies, Robert P.
Gilles, 2010/05/01, Springer
http://www.amazon.com/dp/3642052819?tag=compldiges-20&camp=0&creative=0&linkCode=as
1&creativeASIN=3642052819&adid=159DK29ZH3VC7MAW5JZ4&

  Barry Wellman
  _______________________________________________________________________

   S.D. Clark Professor of Sociology, FRSC               NetLab Director
   Department of Sociology                  725 Spadina Avenue, Room 388
   University of Toronto   Toronto Canada M5S 2J4   twitter:barrywellman
   http://www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman             fax:+1-416-978-3963
   Updating history:      http://chass.utoronto.ca/oldnew/cybertimes.php
  _______________________________________________________________________

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